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Proceedings Paper

Ion channels in artificial bolaamphiphile membranes deposited on sensor chips: optical detection in an ion-channel-based biosensor
Author(s): Thomas G. M. Schalkhammer; Christof Weiss-Wichert; Michaela M. Smetazko; Miriam Valina-Saba
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Paper Abstract

Signal amplification using labels should be replaced by a technique monitoring the biochemical binding event directly. The use of a ligand coupled to an artificial gated membrane ion channel is a new promising strategy. Binding of protein- or DNA/RNA-analytes at ligand modified peptide channels results in an on/off-response of the channel current due to channel closure or distortion. The sensor consists of stable transmembrane channels with a ligand bound covalently at the peptide channel entrance, a sensor chip with a photostructurized hydrophobic polymer frame, a hydrophilic ion conducting membrane support, a lipid membrane incorporating the engineered ion channels, and a current amplifier or a sensitive fluorescence monitor. Detection of channel opening or closure can ether be obtained by directly monitoring membrane conductivity or a transient change of pH or ion concentration within the membrane compartment. This change can be induced by electrochemical or optical means and its decay is directly correlated to the permeability of the membrane. The ion concentration in the sub membrane compartment was monitored by incorporation of fluorescent indicator dyes. To obtain the stable sensor membrane the lipid layer had to be attached on a support and the floating of the second lipid membrane on top of the first one had to be prevented. Both problems do not occur using our new circular C44-C76 bolaamphiphilic lipids consisting of a long hydrophobic core region and two hydrophilic heads. Use of maleic ester-head groups enabled us to easily modify the lipids with amines, thioles, alcohols, phosphates, boronic acid as well as fluorescent dyes. The properties of these membranes were studied using LB and fluorescence techniques. Based on this detection principle miniaturized sensor chips with significantly enhanced sensitivity and large multi analyte arrays are under construction.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 June 1997
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 2976, Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II, (16 June 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.275520
Show Author Affiliations
Thomas G. M. Schalkhammer, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Austria) and Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)
Christof Weiss-Wichert, Univ. Wien (Austria)
Michaela M. Smetazko, Univ. Wien (Austria)
Miriam Valina-Saba, Univ. Wien (Austria)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2976:
Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II
Tuan Vo-Dinh; Robert A. Lieberman; Gerald G. Vurek; Abraham Katzir, Editor(s)

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