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Proceedings Paper

Feasibility demonstration of a second-generation electronic monitoring system
Author(s): John H. Murphy
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Paper Abstract

First generation electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-trial release programs, on parole, and on probation. Current systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the offenders leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the offenders travel where they should. As a result, the first generation electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of low risk cases. There is a growing need for a second generation electronic monitoring system which utilizes community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the public safety and to expand the number of offenders monitored by these systems. Even though GPS (Global Positioning System) is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for vehicle tracking and location, GPS is not an ideal candidate for the second generation electronic monitoring system. Urban environments prevent GPS systems from providing continuous and accurate location service due to satellite occlusion by obstacles such as: hills, mountains, vehicles, buildings, and trees. An inverse-GPS approach which overcomes these urban environment related limitations has been evaluated by Northrop Grumman as a means to track people. This paper presents the results of a National Institute of Justice funded program to demonstrate in downtown Pittsburgh the feasibility of spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

Paper Details

Date Published: 14 February 1997
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 2935, Surveillance and Assessment Technologies for Law Enforcement, (14 February 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.266794
Show Author Affiliations
John H. Murphy, Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Ctr. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2935:
Surveillance and Assessment Technologies for Law Enforcement
A. Trent DePersia; Suzan Yeager; Steve M. Ortiz, Editor(s)

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