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Proceedings Paper

Transmission x-ray diffraction for real-time sensing of the solidification of a casting
Author(s): Dale W. Fitting; William P. Dube; Tom A. Siewert; George Strabel; John Brinegar
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Paper Abstract

A transmission x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique has been developed which may be used, in real time, to locate the molten metal-solidifying metal interface in single-crystal castings. We proved feasibility of the sensor on samples of aluminum and copper in a gradient furnace, and found that the liquid-solid boundary could easily be identified even though the samples were surrounded by a mold wall and encased in a furnace. Subsequently, we have successfully attached the XRD sensor to a small industrial turbine blade casting furnace. The liquid-solid interface can be identified and followed, in real-time during the single- crystal casting process. The high energy x-rays permit in- furnace transmission XRD to be performed on a 6 mm thick nickel alloy specimen. The diffraction pattern was clearly seen, even though the entrance x-ray and diffraction paths through the furnace included 20 mm of Pyrex, 3.2 mm of molybdenum, 9 mm of aluminum oxide, and 12.8 mm of mold material. The x-ray source to imager distance was 1180 mm. An analytical model for transmission XRD has been developed. It is useful for assessing the feasibility of particular sensing applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 November 1996
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 2948, Nondestructive Evaluation for Process Control in Manufacturing, (15 November 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.259194
Show Author Affiliations
Dale W. Fitting, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
William P. Dube, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Tom A. Siewert, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
George Strabel, Howmet Corp. (United States)
John Brinegar, Howmet Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2948:
Nondestructive Evaluation for Process Control in Manufacturing
Richard H. Bossi; Tom Moran, Editor(s)

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