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Proceedings Paper

GOES x-ray sensor and its use in predicting solar-terrestrial disturbances
Author(s): Patricia L. Bornmann; David Speich; Joseph Hirman; Lorne Matheson; Richard Grubb; Howard A. Garcia; R. Viereck
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Paper Abstract

The X-ray sensor (XRS) on the GOES provides a standard reference for essentially continuous monitoring solar activity and characterizing solar flares. Disk-integrated x- ray fluxes observed by XRS are used by forecasters and researchers around the world as a measure of the strength and duration of solar flares. The peak 0.1-0.8 nm x-ray flux during flares is used to distinguish between C, M, and X flares; flares that differ by an order of magnitude in the peak flux. Forecasters use this peak flux to predict the magnitude of proton events, and the x-ray duration is used to estimate whether coronal mass ejection may have occurred that could cause a geomagnetic disturbance if it hits the Earth. Recipients of the data use the peak flux and the duration of the flare to estimate the disturbances expected on radio communication systems. The magnitudes of XRS- observed flares are also used to determine when to issue alerts of changed communication systems. The magnitudes of XRS-observed flares are also used to determine when to issue alerts of changed ionospheric conditions that can disrupt communications and GPS signals. XRS fluxes are also used to augment solar radio observations to alert users of radio frequencies of times when the solar signal may interfere with their operations. The non-flaring x-ray flux, otherwise known as the x-ray background flux, is used as a proxy for he solar EUV emissions that are used to predict the atmospheric density as satellite orbits; variations in the daily averaged solar x-ray flux are used to estimate changes in the atmospheric drag on spacecraft orbits.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 October 1996
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 2812, GOES-8 and Beyond, (18 October 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.254076
Show Author Affiliations
Patricia L. Bornmann, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
David Speich, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
Joseph Hirman, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
Lorne Matheson, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
Richard Grubb, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
Howard A. Garcia, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)
R. Viereck, Space Environment Ctr./NOAA (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2812:
GOES-8 and Beyond
Edward R. Washwell, Editor(s)

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