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Proceedings Paper

High-wafer yield high-performance vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
Author(s): Gabriel S. Li; Wupen Yuen; Sui F. Lim; Constance J. Chang-Hasnain
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Paper Abstract

Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with very low threshold current and voltage of 340 (mu) A and 1.5 V is achieved. The molecular beam epitaxially grown wafers are grown with a highly accurate, low cost and versatile pre-growth calibration technique. One- hundred percent VCSEL wafer yield is obtained. Low threshold current is achieved with a native oxide confined structure with excellent current confinement. Single transverse mode with stable, predetermined polarization direction up to 18 times threshold is also achieved, due to stable index guiding provided by the structure. This is the highest value reported to data for VCSELs. We have established that p-contact annealing in these devices is crucial for low voltage operation, contrary to the general belief. Uniform doping in the mirrors also appears not to be inferior to complicated doping engineering. With these design rules, very low threshold voltage VCSELs are achieved with very simple growth and fabrication steps.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 April 1996
PDF: 17 pages
Proc. SPIE 2694, Quantum Well and Superlattice Physics VI, (19 April 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.238385
Show Author Affiliations
Gabriel S. Li, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Wupen Yuen, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Sui F. Lim, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Constance J. Chang-Hasnain, Stanford Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2694:
Quantum Well and Superlattice Physics VI
Gottfried H. Doehler; Theodore S. Moise, Editor(s)

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