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Proceedings Paper

Micro-size ball lenses for micro-optics: theory and experiment
Author(s): Long Yang; Kok Wai Chang; Gary R. Trott; Richard P. Ratowsky; Robert J. Deri; Jeffrey S. Kallman
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Paper Abstract

Two modeling approaches for analyzing micro-size ball lenses will be described. Due to the low divergence angle of the light coming out of a single mode fiber (SMF), a Gaussian Optics analysis, integrated with ray tracing, is needed to design the optical subsystems such as fiber collimators. On the other hand, due to the large divergence angle of the light coming out of the laser diode (LD), an exact solution of Maxwell's equation which can be obtained by spherical harmonic expansion, is needed in order to predict the coupling efficiency from a LD to a SMF accurately. These models were applied to the cases of forward coupling and back reflections with various arrangements of the optical elements. Excellent agreement was found between the predictions of these two models and the experimental results. These models are very important for assemblies using micro-machined micro-optical parts since they have little or no allowance for alignment adjustments.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 March 1996
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 2687, Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, (8 March 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.234625
Show Author Affiliations
Long Yang, Hewlett-Packard Co. (United States)
Kok Wai Chang, Hewlett-Packard Co. (United States)
Gary R. Trott, Hewlett-Packard Co. (United States)
Richard P. Ratowsky, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Robert J. Deri, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Jeffrey S. Kallman, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2687:
Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics
M. Edward Motamedi, Editor(s)

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