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Sub-arcsecond imaging with multi-image x-ray interferometer module (MIXIM) for very small satellite
Author(s): Kiyoshi Hayashida; Tomoki Kawabata; Takashi Hanasaka; Kazunori Asakura; Tomokage Yoneyama; Koki Okazaki; Shuntaro Ide; Hironori Matsumoto; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hisamitsu Awaki; Hiroshi Tsunemi
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Paper Abstract

We have proposed a new type of X-ray interferometer called Multi Image X-ray Interferometer Module (MIXIM) consisting simply of a grating and an X-ray spectral imaging detector. The baseline concept of MIXIM is a slit camera to obtain the profile of X-ray sources, but aim to get a sub-arcsecond resolution. For that purpose, to avoid blurring of the image by diffraction is a key, and we select X-ray events of which energy satisfies the interferometric condition called Talbot effect. Stacking the images (X-ray interferometric fringes) with the period of the grating is another point of the method, which provides the self image of a grating slit convolved with the profile of the X-ray source. We started an experiment with a micro focus X-ray source, 4.8 μm pitch grating, and an SOI type X-ray detector XRPIX2b with a pixel size of 30 μm. The stacked self image was obtained with a magnification factor of 4.4. We, however, need finer positional resolution for the detector to obtain the self image to a parallel beam, for which the magnification factor must be 1. We thus focused on small pixel size CMOS sensors developed for visible light. We irradiated X-rays to one of such CMOS sensors GSENSE5130 with a pixel size of 4.25 μm, and found enough capability to detect X-rays, i.e., FWHM of 207 eV at 5.9 keV at room temperature. We then employed this sensor and performed an experiment at a 200 m beam line of BL20B2 in the synchrotron facility SPring8. Using a grating with a pitch of 4.8 µm and an opening fraction of f=0.5, we obtained the self image of the grating at the detector distance from the grating of 23 cm and 46 cm and the X-ray energy of 12.4 keV. We also performed an experiment using a 9.6 μm f = 0.2 grating with a detector-grating distance of 92 cm, and obtained higher contrast image of the grating. Note that the slit width of 2.4 μm at 46 cm corresponds to 1.1′′, while that of 1.9 μm at 92 cm does 0.43′′. We suggest several format of possible MIXIM missions, including MIXIM-S for very small satellite of 50cm size, MIXIM-P for parasite use of nominal X-ray observatory employing grazing X-ray telescopes with a focal length of 10 m, and MIXIM-Z in which the grating-detector distance of 100 m is acquired by formation flight or free fryers to yield 0.01” level resolution.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 July 2018
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 10699, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 106990U (10 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2314181
Show Author Affiliations
Kiyoshi Hayashida, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Tomoki Kawabata, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Takashi Hanasaka, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Kazunori Asakura, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Tomokage Yoneyama, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Koki Okazaki, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Shuntaro Ide, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Hironori Matsumoto, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Hiroshi Nakajima, Kanto Gakuin Univ. (Japan)
Hisamitsu Awaki, Ehime Univ. (Japan)
Hiroshi Tsunemi, Osaka Univ. (Japan)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10699:
Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Jan-Willem A. den Herder; Shouleh Nikzad; Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Editor(s)

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