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The Design of the Lynx x-ray microcalorimeter (LXM) (Conference Presentation)
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Paper Abstract

Lynx is an x-ray telescope that is one of four large satellite mission concepts currently being studied by NASA to be the next flagship mission. One of Lynx’s three instruments is the Lynx X-ray Microcalorimeter (LXM), an imaging spectrometer placed at the focus of an x-ray optic with 0.5 arc-second angular resolution and approximately 2 m2 area at 1 keV. It will be used for a wide variety of observations, and the driving performance requirements are met through different sub-regions of the array. It will provide an energy resolution of better than 3 eV over the energy range of 0.2 to 7 keV, with pixels sizes that vary in scale from 0.5 to 1 arc-seconds in the inner 5 arc-minute field-of-view, and to 5 arc-seconds in the extended 20 arc-minute field-of-view. The Main Array consists mostly of 1 arc-second pixels in the central 5 arc-minutes with less than 3 eV energy resolution (FWHM) in the energy range of 0.2 to 7 keV. It is enhanced in the inner 1 arc-minute region with 0.5 arc-second pixels that will better sample the point spread function of the X-ray optic. The inner 5 arc-minute region is designed specifically for the observations related to cosmic feedback studies, investigating the interactions of AGN with the local regions surrounding them. The 0.5" pixel size allows detailed studies of winds and jets on a finer angular scale. It is also optimized for spatially resolved measurements of cluster cores. The outer regions of the array are designed to operate during a completely different set of observations. The Extended Array will be utilized for surveys over large regions of the sky, the 20 arc-minute field-of-view making it practical to make observations of the soft diffuse emission from larger scale-structure such as extended galaxies, the outer regions of galaxy groups and clusters and also cosmic filaments. This array is optimized for high energy resolution up to 2 keV through the use of thin (0.5 um) gold absorbers. The Ultra-High-Res Array is designed specifically to enable the study turbulent line broadening around individual through the study of the highly ionized oxygen lines. It is optimized for energy resolution for the oxygen VII and VIII lines, with better than 0.4 eV energy resolution. In this paper we present the design of the baseline configuration and the scientific motivation. We discuss the technologies that are being developed for this instrument, in particular the transition-edge sensor (TES) and metallic magnetic calorimeter (MMC) sensor technologies. We place these technologies in the context of the required energy resolution, energy range, pixel size, and count-rate, as well as strategies for the pixel layout and wiring. We will discuss the use of microwave SQUIDs, HEMT amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers for the read-out and the implications for the cryogenic design. We also describe the design of the full instrument, including the strawman cryogenic design, as well as an estimate for the mass, power and data rate.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 July 2018
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Proc. SPIE 10699, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 1069913 (10 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2314079
Show Author Affiliations
Simon R. Bandler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Michael DiPirro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Megan E. Eckart, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Kazuhiro Sakai, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Stephen J. Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Wonsik Yoon, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Douglas A. Bennett, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Ben J. A. Mates, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Daniel S. Swetz, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Joel N. Ullom, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Kent D. Irwin, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Dan McCammon, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Enectali Figueroa-Feliciano, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Kevin Ryu, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Ben Zeiger, Luxel Corp. (United States)
Jeffrey Olson, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10699:
Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Jan-Willem A. den Herder; Shouleh Nikzad; Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Editor(s)

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