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QUBIC: the Q and U bolometric interferometer for cosmology
Author(s): C. O'Sullivan; P. Ade; G. Amico; D. Auguste; J. Aumont; S. Banfi; G. Barbarán; P. Battaglia; E. Battistelli; A. Baù; B. Bélier; D. Bennett; L. Bergé; J.-Ph. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; M.-A. Bigot-Sazy; N. Bleurvacq; J. Bonaparte; J. Bonis; G. Bordier; E. Bréelle; E. Bunn; D. Burke; D. Buzi; A. Buzzelli; F. Cavaliere; P. Chanial; C. Chapron; R. Charlassier; F. Columbro; G. Coppi; A. Coppolecchia; F. Couchot; R. D'Agostino; G. D’Alessandro; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; M. De Leo; M. De Petris; A. Di Donato; L. Dumoulin; A. Etchegoyen; A. Fasciszewski; C. Franceschet; M. M. Gamboa Lerena; B. García; X. Garrido; M. Gaspard; A. Gault; D. Gayer; M. Gervasi; M. Giard; Y. Giraud-Héraud; M. Gómez Berisso; M. González; M. Gradziel; L. Grandsire; E. Guerrard; J.-Ch. Hamilton; D. Harari; V. Haynes; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. T. Hoang; F. Incardona; E. Jules; J. Kaplan; A. Korotkov; C. Kristukat; L. Lamagna; S. Loucatos; T. Louis; A. Lowitz; V. Lukovic; R. Luterstein; B. Maffei; S. Marnieros; S. Masi; A. Mattei; A. May; M. McCulloch; M. C. Medina; L. Mele; S. Melhuish; A. Mennella; L. Montier; L. M. Mundo; J. A. Murphy; J. D. Murphy; E. Olivieri; A. Paiella; F. Pajot; A. Passerini; H. Pastoriza; A. Pelosi; C. Perbost; O. Perdereau; F. Pezzotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; L. Piccirillo; G. Pisano; G. Polenta; D. Prêle; R. Puddu; D. Rambaud; P. Ringegni; G. E. Romero; M. Salatino; A. Schillaci; C. G. Scóccola; S. Scully; S. Spinelli; M. Stolpovskiy; F. Suarez; A. Tartari; J.-P. Thermeau; P. Timbie; S. A. Torchinsky; M. Tristram; V. Truongcanh; C. Tucker; G. Tucker; S. Vanneste; D. Viganò; N. Vittorio; F. Voisin; B. Watson; F. Wicek; M. Zannoni; A. Zullo
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Paper Abstract

QUBIC, the Q & U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology, is a novel ground-based instrument that has been designed to measure the extremely faint B-mode polarisation anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background at intermediate angular scales (multipoles of 𝑙 = 30 − 200). Primordial B-modes are a key prediction of Inflation as they can only be produced by gravitational waves in the very early universe. To achieve this goal, QUBIC will use bolometric interferometry, a technique that combines the sensitivity of an imager with the systematic error control of an interferometer. It will directly observe the sky through an array of 400 back-to-back entry horns whose signals will be superimposed using a quasi-optical beam combiner. The resulting interference fringes will be imaged at 150 and 220 GHz on two focal planes, each tiled with NbSi Transition Edge Sensors, cooled to 320 mK and read out with time-domain multiplexing. A dichroic filter placed between the optical combiner and the focal planes will select the two frequency bands. A very large receiver cryostat will cool the optical and detector stages to 40 K, 4 K, 1 K and 320 mK using two pulse tube coolers, a novel 4He sorption cooler and a double-stage 3He/4He sorption cooler. Polarisation modulation and selection will be achieved using a cold stepped half-wave plate (HWP) and polariser, respectively, in front of the sky-facing horns. A key feature of QUBIC’s ability to control systematic effects is its ‘self-calibration’ mode where fringe patterns from individual equivalent baselines can be compared. When observing, however, all the horns will be open simultaneously and we will recover a synthetic image of the sky in the I, Q and U Stokes’ parameters. The synthesised beam pattern has a central peak of approximately 0.5 degrees in width, with secondary peaks further out that are damped by the 13-degree primary beam of the horns. This is Module 1 of QUBIC which will be installed in Argentina, near the city of San Antonio de los Cobres, at the Alto Chorrillos site (4869 m a.s.l.), Salta Province. Simulations have shown that this first module could constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to σ(r) = 0.01 after a two-year survey. We aim to add further modules in the future to increase the angular sensitivity and resolution of the instrument. The QUBIC project is proceeding through a sequence of steps. After an initial successful characterisation of the detection chain, a technological demonstrator is being assembled to validate the full instrument design and to test it electrically, thermally and optically.

The technical demonstrator is a scaled-down version of Module 1 in terms of the number of detectors, input horns and pulse tubes and a reduction in the diameter of the combiner mirrors and filters, but is otherwise similar. The demonstrator will be upgraded to the full module in 2019. In this paper we give an overview of the QUBIC project and instrument.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 July 2018
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 10708, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, 107082B (9 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2313332
Show Author Affiliations
C. O'Sullivan, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
P. Ade, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom)
G. Amico, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
D. Auguste, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
J. Aumont, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, INSU (France)
S. Banfi, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
G. Barbarán, CNEA (Argentina)
P. Battaglia, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
E. Battistelli, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
A. Baù, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
B. Bélier, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France)
D. Bennett, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
L. Bergé, Ctr. de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière de Masse, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
J.-Ph. Bernard, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, INSU (France)
M. Bersanelli, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
M.-A. Bigot-Sazy, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
N. Bleurvacq, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
J. Bonaparte, CNEA (Argentina)
J. Bonis, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
G. Bordier, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
E. Bréelle, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
E. Bunn, Univ. of Richmond (United States)
D. Burke, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
D. Buzi, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
A. Buzzelli, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
F. Cavaliere, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
P. Chanial, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
C. Chapron, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
R. Charlassier, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
F. Columbro, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
G. Coppi, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
A. Coppolecchia, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
F. Couchot, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
R. D'Agostino, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
G. D’Alessandro, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
P. de Bernardis, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
G. de Gasperis, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
M. De Leo, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
M. De Petris, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
A. Di Donato, CNEA (Argentina)
L. Dumoulin, Ctr. de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière de Masse, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
A. Etchegoyen, CNEA (Argentina)
A. Fasciszewski, CNEA (Argentina)
C. Franceschet, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
M. M. Gamboa Lerena, Univ. Nacional de la Plata (Argentina)
B. García, CNEA (Argentina)
X. Garrido, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
M. Gaspard, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
A. Gault, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
D. Gayer, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
M. Gervasi, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
M. Giard, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, INSU (France)
Y. Giraud-Héraud, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
M. Gómez Berisso, Ctr. Atómico Bariloche (Argentina)
Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)
M. González, Ctr. Atómico Bariloche (Argentina)
Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)
M. Gradziel, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
L. Grandsire, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
E. Guerrard, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
J.-Ch. Hamilton, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
D. Harari, Ctr. Atómico Bariloche (Argentina)
Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)
V. Haynes, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
S. Henrot-Versillé, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
D. T. Hoang, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
F. Incardona, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
E. Jules, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
J. Kaplan, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
A. Korotkov, Brown Univ. (United States)
C. Kristukat, Univ. Nacional de San Martín (Argentina)
L. Lamagna, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
S. Loucatos, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
T. Louis, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
A. Lowitz, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
V. Lukovic, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
R. Luterstein, CNEA (Argentina)
B. Maffei, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, INSU (France)
S. Marnieros, Ctr. de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière de Masse, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
S. Masi, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
A. Mattei, INFN (Italy)
A. May, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
M. McCulloch, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
M. C. Medina, CNEA (Argentina)
L. Mele, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
S. Melhuish, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
A. Mennella, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
L. Montier, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, INSU (France)
L. M. Mundo, Univ. Nacional de la Plata (Argentina)
J. A. Murphy, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
J. D. Murphy, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
E. Olivieri, Ctr. de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière de Masse, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
A. Paiella, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
F. Pajot, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, INSU (France)
A. Passerini, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
H. Pastoriza, Ctr. Atómico Bariloche (Argentina)
Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)
A. Pelosi, INFN (Italy)
C. Perbost, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
O. Perdereau, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
F. Pezzotta, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
F. Piacentini, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
M. Piat, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
L. Piccirillo, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
G. Pisano, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom)
G. Polenta, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
D. Prêle, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
R. Puddu, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
D. Rambaud, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, INSU (France)
P. Ringegni, Univ. Nacional de la Plata (Argentina)
G. E. Romero, CNEA (Argentina)
M. Salatino, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
A. Schillaci, Caltech (United States)
C. G. Scóccola, Univ. Nacional de la Plata (Argentina)
S. Scully, National Univ. of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)
Institute of Technology Carlow (Ireland)
S. Spinelli, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
M. Stolpovskiy, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
F. Suarez, Univ. Nacional de San Martín (Argentina)
A. Tartari, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
J.-P. Thermeau, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
P. Timbie, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
S. A. Torchinsky, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
M. Tristram, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
V. Truongcanh, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
C. Tucker, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom)
G. Tucker, Brown Univ. (United States)
S. Vanneste, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
D. Viganò, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy)
N. Vittorio, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
F. Voisin, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, CNRS, IN2P3, Univ. Paris Diderot-Paris 7 (France)
B. Watson, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
F. Wicek, Lab. de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, CNRS, IN2P3 (France)
M. Zannoni, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
INFN (Italy)
A. Zullo, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10708:
Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy IX
Jonas Zmuidzinas; Jian-Rong Gao, Editor(s)

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