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Proceedings Paper

Concept of the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission
Author(s): Makoto Tashiro; Hironori Maejima; Kenichi Toda; Richard Kelley; Lillian Reichenthal; James Lobell; Robert Petre; Matteo Guainazzi; Elisa Costantini; Mark Edison; Ryuichi Fujimoto; Martin Grim; Kiyoshi Hayashida; Jan-Willem den Herder; Yoshitaka Ishisaki; Stéphane Paltani; Kyoko Matsushita; Koji Mori; Gary Sneiderman; Yoh Takei; Yukikatsu Terada; Hiroshi Tomida; Hiroki Akamatsu; Lorella Angelini; Yoshitaka Arai; Hisamitsu Awaki; Lurli Babyk; Aya Bamba; Peter Barfknecht; Kim Barnstable; Thomas Bialas; Branimir Blagojevic; Joseph Bonafede; Clifford Brambora; Laura Brenneman; Greg Brown; Kimberly Brown; Laura Burns; Edgar Canavan; Tim Carnahan; Meng Chiao; Brian Comber; Lia Corrales; Cor de Vries; Johannes Dercksen; Maria Diaz-Trigo; Tyrone Dillard; Michael DiPirro; Chris Done; Tadayasu Dotani; Ken Ebisawa; Megan Eckart; Teruaki Enoto; Yuichiro Ezoe; Carlo Ferrigno; Yasushi Fukazawa; Yutaka Fujita; Akihiro Furuzawa; Luigi Gallo; Steve Graham; Liyi Gu; Kohichi Hagino; Kenji Hamaguchi; Isamu Hatsukade; Dean Hawes; Takayuki Hayashi; Cailey Hegarty; Natalie Hell; Junko Hiraga; Edmund Hodges-Kluck; Matt Holland; Ann Hornschemeier; Akio Hoshino; Yuto Ichinohe; Ryo Iizuka; Kazunori Ishibashi; Manabu Ishida; Kumi Ishikawa; Kosei Ishimura; Bryan James; Timothy Kallman; Erin Kara; Satoru Katsuda; Steven Kenyon; Caroline Kilbourne; Mark Kimball; Takao Kitaguti; Shunji Kitamoto; Shogo Kobayashi; Takayoshi Kohmura; Shu Koyama; Aya Kubota; Maurice Leutenegger; Tom Lockard; Mike Loewenstein; Yoshitomo Maeda; Lynette Marbley; Maxim Markevitch; Hironori Matsumoto; Keiichi Matsuzaki; Dan McCammon; Brian McNamara; Joseph Miko; Eric Miller; Jon Miller; Kenji Minesugi; Ikuyuki Mitsuishi; Tsunefumi Mizuno; Hideyuki Mori; Koji Mukai; Hiroshi Murakami; Richard Mushotzky; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hideto Nakamura; Shinya Nakashima; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Chikara Natsukari; Kenichiro Nigo; Yusuke Nishioka; Kumiko Nobukawa; Masayoshi Nobukawa; Hirofumi Noda; Hirokazu Odaka; Mina Ogawa; Takaya Ohashi; Masahiro Ohno; Masayuki Ohta; Takashi Okajima; Atsushi Okamoto; Michitaka Onizuka; Naomi Ota; Masanobu Ozaki; Paul Plucinsky; F. Scott Porter; Katja Pottschmidt; Kosuke Sato; Rie Sato; Makoto Sawada; Hiromi Seta; Ken Shelton; Yasuko Shibano; Maki Shida; Megumi Shidatsu; Peter Shirron; Aurora Simionescu; Randall Smith; Kazunori Someya; Yang Soong; Yasuharu Suagawara; Andy Szymkowiak; Hiromitsu Takahashi; Toru Tamagawa; Takayuki Tamura; Takaaki Tanaka; Yuichi Terashima; Yohko Tsuboi; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Hiroshi Tsunemi; Takeshi Tsuru; Hiroyuki Uchida; Hideki Uchiyama; Yoshihiro Ueda; Shinichiro Uno; Thomas Walsh; Shin Watanabe; Brian Williams; Rob Wolfs; Michael Wright; Shinya Yamada; Hiroya Yamaguchi; Kazutaka Yamaoka; Noriko Yamasaki; Shigeo Yamauchi; Makoto Yamauchi; Keiichi Yanagase; Tahir Yaqoob; Susumu Yasuda; Nasa Yoshioka; Jaime Zabala; Zhuravleva Irina
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Paper Abstract

The ASTRO-H mission was designed and developed through an international collaboration of JAXA, NASA, ESA, and the CSA. It was successfully launched on February 17, 2016, and then named Hitomi. During the in-orbit verification phase, the on-board observational instruments functioned as expected. The intricate coolant and refrigeration systems for soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS, a quantum micro-calorimeter) and soft X-ray imager (SXI, an X-ray CCD) also functioned as expected. However, on March 26, 2016, operations were prematurely terminated by a series of abnormal events and mishaps triggered by the attitude control system. These errors led to a fatal event: the loss of the solar panels on the Hitomi mission. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (or, XARM) is proposed to regain the key scientific advances anticipated by the international collaboration behind Hitomi. XARM will recover this science in the shortest time possible by focusing on one of the main science goals of Hitomi,“Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy”.1 This decision was reached after evaluating the performance of the instruments aboard Hitomi and the mission’s initial scientific results, and considering the landscape of planned international X-ray astrophysics missions in 2020’s and 2030’s. Hitomi opened the door to high-resolution spectroscopy in the X-ray universe. It revealed a number of discrepancies between new observational results and prior theoretical predictions. Yet, the resolution pioneered by Hitomi is also the key to answering these and other fundamental questions. The high spectral resolution realized by XARM will not offer mere refinements; rather, it will enable qualitative leaps in astrophysics and plasma physics. XARM has therefore been given a broad scientific charge: “Revealing material circulation and energy transfer in cosmic plasmas and elucidating evolution of cosmic structures and objects”. To fulfill this charge, four categories of science objectives that were defined for Hitomi will also be pursued by XARM; these include (1) Structure formation of the Universe and evolution of clusters of galaxies; (2) Circulation history of baryonic matters in the Universe; (3) Transport and circulation of energy in the Universe; (4) New science with unprecedented high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, XARM will carry a 6 × 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and a wider field of view. This paper introduces the science objectives, mission concept, and observing plan of XARM.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 July 2018
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 10699, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 1069922 (6 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2309455
Show Author Affiliations
Makoto Tashiro, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Saitama Univ. (Japan)
Hironori Maejima, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Kenichi Toda, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Richard Kelley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Lillian Reichenthal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
James Lobell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Robert Petre, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Matteo Guainazzi, European Space Astronomy Ctr. (Spain)
Elisa Costantini, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Mark Edison, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Ryuichi Fujimoto, Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)
Martin Grim, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Kiyoshi Hayashida, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Jan-Willem den Herder, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)
Stéphane Paltani, Univ. de Genève (Switzerland)
Kyoko Matsushita, Tokyo Univ. of Science (Japan)
Koji Mori, Univ. of Miyazaki (Japan)
Gary Sneiderman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yoh Takei, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Yukikatsu Terada, Saitama Univ. (Japan)
Hiroshi Tomida, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Hiroki Akamatsu, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Lorella Angelini, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yoshitaka Arai, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Hisamitsu Awaki, Ehime Univ. (Japan)
Lurli Babyk, Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)
Aya Bamba, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Peter Barfknecht, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Kim Barnstable, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Thomas Bialas, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Branimir Blagojevic, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Joseph Bonafede, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Clifford Brambora, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Laura Brenneman, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Greg Brown, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Kimberly Brown, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Laura Burns, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Edgar Canavan, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Tim Carnahan, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Meng Chiao, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Brian Comber, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Lia Corrales, Univ. of Wisconsin (United States)
Cor de Vries, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Johannes Dercksen, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Maria Diaz-Trigo, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
Tyrone Dillard, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Michael DiPirro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Chris Done, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)
Tadayasu Dotani, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Ken Ebisawa, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Megan Eckart, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Teruaki Enoto, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Yuichiro Ezoe, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)
Carlo Ferrigno, Univ. de Genève (Switzerland)
Yasushi Fukazawa, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)
Yutaka Fujita, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Akihiro Furuzawa, Fujita Health Univ. (Japan)
Luigi Gallo, Saint Mary's Univ. (Canada)
Steve Graham, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Liyi Gu, RIKEN (Japan)
Kohichi Hagino, Tokyo Univ. of Science (Japan)
Kenji Hamaguchi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Isamu Hatsukade, Univ. of Miyazaki (Japan)
Dean Hawes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Takayuki Hayashi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Cailey Hegarty, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Natalie Hell, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Junko Hiraga, Kwansei Gakuin Univ. (Japan)
Edmund Hodges-Kluck, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Matt Holland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Ann Hornschemeier, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Akio Hoshino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yuto Ichinohe, Rikkyo Univ. (Japan)
Ryo Iizuka, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Kazunori Ishibashi, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
Manabu Ishida, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Kumi Ishikawa, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Kosei Ishimura, Waseda Univ. (Japan)
Bryan James, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Timothy Kallman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Erin Kara, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
Satoru Katsuda, Saitama Univ. (Japan)
Steven Kenyon, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Caroline Kilbourne, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Mark Kimball, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Takao Kitaguti, RIKEN (Japan)
Shunji Kitamoto, Rikkyo Univ. (Japan)
Shogo Kobayashi, Tokyo Univ. of Science (Japan)
Takayoshi Kohmura, Tokyo Univ. of Science (Japan)
Shu Koyama, Rikkyo Univ. (Japan)
Aya Kubota, Shibaura Institute of Technology (Japan)
Maurice Leutenegger, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States)
Tom Lockard, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Mike Loewenstein, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yoshitomo Maeda, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Lynette Marbley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Maxim Markevitch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Hironori Matsumoto, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Keiichi Matsuzaki, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Dan McCammon, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Brian McNamara, Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)
Joseph Miko, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Eric Miller, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Jon Miller, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Kenji Minesugi, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)
Hideyuki Mori, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Koji Mukai, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Hiroshi Murakami, Tohoku Gakuin Univ. (Japan)
Richard Mushotzky, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
Hiroshi Nakajima, Kanto Gakuin Univ. (Japan)
Hideto Nakamura, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Shinya Nakashima, RIKEN (Japan)
Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
Chikara Natsukari, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Kenichiro Nigo, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Yusuke Nishioka, Univ. of Miyazaki (Japan)
Kumiko Nobukawa, Nara Women's Univ. (Japan)
Masayoshi Nobukawa, Nara Univ. of Education (Japan)
Hirofumi Noda, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)
Hirokazu Odaka, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Mina Ogawa, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Takaya Ohashi, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)
Masahiro Ohno, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)
Masayuki Ohta, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Takashi Okajima, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Atsushi Okamoto, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Michitaka Onizuka, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Naomi Ota, Nara Women's Univ. (Japan)
Masanobu Ozaki, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Paul Plucinsky, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (United States)
F. Scott Porter, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Katja Pottschmidt, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States)
Kosuke Sato, Saitama Univ. (Japan)
Rie Sato, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Makoto Sawada, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Hiromi Seta, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)
Ken Shelton, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yasuko Shibano, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Maki Shida, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Megumi Shidatsu, Ehime Univ. (Japan)
Peter Shirron, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Aurora Simionescu, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Randall Smith, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Kazunori Someya, Tsukuba Space Ctr. (Japan)
Yang Soong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Yasuharu Suagawara, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Andy Szymkowiak, Yale Univ. (United States)
Hiromitsu Takahashi, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)
Toru Tamagawa, RIKEN (Japan)
Takayuki Tamura, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Takaaki Tanaka, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Yuichi Terashima, Ehime Univ. (Japan)
Yohko Tsuboi, Chuo Univ. (Japan)
Masahiro Tsujimoto, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Hiroshi Tsunemi, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Takeshi Tsuru, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Hiroyuki Uchida, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Hideki Uchiyama, Shizuoka Univ. (Japan)
Yoshihiro Ueda, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Shinichiro Uno, Nihon Fukushi Univ. (Japan)
Thomas Walsh, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Shin Watanabe, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Brian Williams, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Rob Wolfs, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Netherlands)
Michael Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Shinya Yamada, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)
Hiroya Yamaguchi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Kazutaka Yamaoka, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
Noriko Yamasaki, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Shigeo Yamauchi, Nara Women's Univ. (Japan)
Makoto Yamauchi, Univ. of Miyazaki (Japan)
Keiichi Yanagase, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
Tahir Yaqoob, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Susumu Yasuda, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Nasa Yoshioka, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Jaime Zabala, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Zhuravleva Irina, Stanford Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10699:
Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Jan-Willem A. den Herder; Shouleh Nikzad; Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Editor(s)

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