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Proceedings Paper

Towards an efficient spin-photon interface with NV centres in diamond (Conference Presentation)
Author(s): Laiyi Weng; Sam Johnson; Hangyu Liu; Ross Leyman; Yu-Chen Chen; Shazeaa Ishmael; Paul Hill; Ben Green; Gavin Morley; Aurelien A. P. Trichet; Erdan Gu; Mark E. Newton; Jason M. Smith
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Paper Abstract

The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond is known for its coherent spin properties and optical interface, and thus is regarded a promising candidate for quantum information applications [1]. Realisation of an efficient spin-photon interface with the NV centre is made challenging however by the fact that, in bulk diamond, only 3-4% of spontaneously emitted photons occur in the zero phonon line (ZPL). Placing NV centre in an optical cavity is being explored by several groups [2][3][4] as an effective way to selectively enhance the coherent emission of NVs and thereby increase the efficiency of the coherent spin-photon coupling. Previous work reported successful coupling of the NV in nano-diamond to an open access micro-cavity and observed enhanced ZPL emission [5]. However the NV centres in nano-diamond suffer from broadened zero phonon transition and poor spin coherence. By fabricating NV centres in a ~micrometre thick membrane of high purity single crystal material we can take advantage of the tunability of open access cavities, and at the same time, provide close-to-bulk crystal environment to maintain the coherent spin properties of the NV centres. Here we report our work on the tunable cavity coupling of the ZPL of a NV centre in a 1.2micrometre-thick diamond membrane at 4K. The diamond membrane is fabricated from a 0.5mm-thick E6 CVD diamond plate where ion implantation is carried out on both surfaces to create NV centres at the depth of around 70nm. The plate is then machined into 30micrometre-thick slices, and thinned by ICP-RIE with a combination of Ar/Cl[6] and pure oxygen plasma etching recipes. The open cavity consists of a concave mirror (99.99% reflectivity) deposited on a template fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling[7] and a planar mirror (99.8% reflectivity) which supports the membrane. For bare cavities with mirror radii of curvature (RoC) of 12micrometre, we measured a finesse of F~2000 and mode volume as small as 0.75micrometre^3. In-situ tuning of the cavity resonance is achieved with piezoelectric actuators. When mounted in our bath cryostat the cavity modes have dominant Lorentzian line profiles which indicate a passive stability of the cavity length of better than 0.15nm. No active locking is currently deployed. With the presence of a diamond membrane inside the cavities, the measured finesse and mode volume of a cavity with 12micrometre RoC are found to be around 300 and 3 micrometre^3, respectively. We attribute the reduction in finesse to scattering at the membrane-air and membrane-mirror interfaces. On coupling to the ZPL of a target NV centre, we record a factor of 4 increase in the saturated intensity of ZPL fluorescence compared to that measured from the same NV centre in absence of the concave mirror. This result is consistent with the calculated Purcell factor of 16 combined with a relatively low efficiency of light extraction (estimated to be around 19%) from the cavity due to the scattering losses.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 May 2018
Proc. SPIE 10672, Nanophotonics VII, 106720U (23 May 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2306650
Show Author Affiliations
Laiyi Weng, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Sam Johnson, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Hangyu Liu, Univ. of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)
Ross Leyman, Univ. of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)
Yu-Chen Chen, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Shazeaa Ishmael, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Paul Hill, Univ. of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)
Ben Green, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom)
Gavin Morley, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom)
Aurelien A. P. Trichet, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Erdan Gu, Univ. of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)
Mark E. Newton, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom)
Jason M. Smith, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10672:
Nanophotonics VII
David L. Andrews; Angus J. Bain; Jean-Michel Nunzi; Andreas Ostendorf, Editor(s)

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