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Proceedings Paper • Open Access

Wave front sensing for next generation earth observation telescope
Author(s): J.-M. Delvit; C. Thiebaut; C. Latry; G. Blanchet

Paper Abstract

High resolution observations systems are highly dependent on optics quality and are usually designed to be nearly diffraction limited. Such a performance allows to set a Nyquist frequency closer to the cut off frequency, or equivalently to minimize the pupil diameter for a given ground sampling distance target. Up to now, defocus is the only aberration that is allowed to evolve slowly and that may be inflight corrected, using an open loop correction based upon ground estimation and refocusing command upload. For instance, Pleiades satellites defocus is assessed from star acquisitions and refocusing is done with a thermal actuation of the M2 mirror. Next generation systems under study at CNES should include active optics in order to allow evolving aberrations not only limited to defocus, due for instance to in orbit thermal variable conditions. Active optics relies on aberration estimations through an onboard Wave Front Sensor (WFS). One option is using a Shack Hartmann. The Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor could be used on extended scenes (unknown landscapes). A wave-front computation algorithm should then be implemented on-board the satellite to provide the control loop wave-front error measure. In the worst case scenario, this measure should be computed before each image acquisition. A robust and fast shift estimation algorithm between Shack-Hartmann images is then needed to fulfill this last requirement. A fast gradient-based algorithm using optical flows with a Lucas-Kanade method has been studied and implemented on an electronic device developed by CNES. Measurement accuracy depends on the Wave Front Error (WFE), the landscape frequency content, the number of searched aberrations, the a priori knowledge of high order aberrations and the characteristics of the sensor. CNES has realized a full scale sensitivity analysis on the whole parameter set with our internally developed algorithm.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 September 2017
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 10562, International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2016, 105625H (25 September 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2296162
Show Author Affiliations
J.-M. Delvit, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
C. Thiebaut, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
C. Latry, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
G. Blanchet, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10562:
International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2016
Bruno Cugny; Nikos Karafolas; Zoran Sodnik, Editor(s)

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