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Proceedings Paper • Open Access

Sentinel-5: a novel measurement approach to quantify diffuser induced spectral features
Author(s): Tristan Burns; Luis Ferreira; Corneli Keim; Lucia Perez Prieto; Jasper Simon Krauser; Dennis Weise

Paper Abstract

Many current and future earth observation satellites include spectrometer instruments, due to their suitability for identifying atmospheric gases through spectral signatures. Space based spectrometer instruments, such as the Sentinel-5-UVNS instrument (S5)[1] for the polar-orbiting MetOp Second Generation satellite, require appropriate calibration to incident sunlight in order to provide radiometrically accurate data. To ensure homogenous illumination of the entrance slit of the spectrometer during sunlight calibration, a diffuser is used to scatter the incoming light [1]. One contribution to inaccuracy in sunlight calibration is spectral features, an interference phenomenon resulting from scattering off the calibration unit diffuser [2].

The scattering of the incident light at the diffuser induces path differences, which yield a speckle pattern in the entrance slit. These speckles are still present at the focal plane of modern spectrometers through a combination of the high spectral and spatial resolution [2] [3]. Spectral features originate from the spectral integration of speckles in the slit to the spectrometer detector plane and further integration by the detector pixels [1]. The spectral variation following pixel integration is known as spectral features. The magnitude of this error is evaluated in terms of the Spectral Features Amplitude (SFA), the ratio of the signal standard deviation with its mean value, within a specific wavelength range [4].

This work proposes a novel measurement technique. This method is based on the acquisition of monochromatic speckle patterns in the slit over a finely sampled wavelength range. The net spectral features at the spectrometer detector are evaluated through post processing, by integrating acquired speckle patterns along the spectral resolution, and detector pixels. A key advantage of the proposed technique is the fine sampling and observation of the interference structures that make up spectral features, below the level of a spectrometer pixel. The simplified optical system and simulation of an idealised spectrometer reduces the error contributions when compared to measurement using an entire spectrometer.

The goal of this investigation is the measurement of the S5 spectral features amplitude associated with the Heraeus Optical Diffuser (HOD), a volume diffuser, and the TNO quasi volume diffuser (QVD), in conjunction with qualitative insight into the mechanism behind speckle induced spectral features, supporting the design of future spectrometers.

This paper is structured as follows: Section II details the system designed to acquire monochromatic speckle patterns. The monochromatic speckle patterns are obtained using a tuneable laser capable of wavelength steps below the speckle decorrelation wavelength, as investigated in III. Section IV outlines how monochromatic speckles are integrated to spectral features, and reports the SFA values for the HOD and QVD. The spectral features results are discussed in light of this inference in Section V, with conclusions presented in Section VI.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 September 2017
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Proc. SPIE 10562, International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2016, 105621L (25 September 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2296079
Show Author Affiliations
Tristan Burns, The Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Luis Ferreira, Airbus DS GmbH (Germany)
Corneli Keim, Airbus DS GmbH (Germany)
Lucia Perez Prieto, Airbus DS GmbH (Germany)
Jasper Simon Krauser, Airbus DS GmbH (Germany)
Dennis Weise, Airbus DS GmbH (Germany)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10562:
International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2016
Bruno Cugny; Nikos Karafolas; Zoran Sodnik, Editor(s)

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