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Proceedings Paper

Stability requirements for two-beam interference lithography diffraction grating manufacturing
Author(s): Felix Koch; Dennis Lehr; Tilman Glaser
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Paper Abstract

Reproducible manufacturing especially of large diffraction gratings using two-beam laser interference lithography gives rise to exceptional requirements on the stability of environmental conditions like temperature, air pressure, humidity, vibrations as well as a robust exposure setup using stable components, a highly coherent, frequency-stable laser and highquality optics. In our contribution, these requirements are reviewed systematically. The influences of atmospheric refractive index, laser frequency fluctuations, and thermomechanical drifts on the exposed dose contrast and hence on profile variations for surface-corrugated gratings are discussed. Moreover, mid-spatial frequency surface-errors of the used optical elements are identified as a main cause for local dose variations. Reasonable specifications for series manufacturing of grating masters are given and real-world measurement data from a holography laboratory is presented to illustrate the interplay between these different influences. This experimental data includes atomic force microscope scans of highgroove density resist gratings, spatially resolved diffraction efficiency measurements and moiré-interferometric measurements of the fringe stability. The results of our analysis are also useful for other holographic manufacturing facilities, including the manufacturing of surface and volume holographic optical elements of any kind.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 October 2017
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 10448, Optifab 2017, 104481L (16 October 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2277007
Show Author Affiliations
Felix Koch, Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH (Germany)
Dennis Lehr, Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH (Germany)
Tilman Glaser, Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH (Germany)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10448:
Optifab 2017
Julie L. Bentley; Sebastian Stoebenau, Editor(s)

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