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Proceedings Paper

Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)
Author(s): Megan M. Sheehan; Ganga Karunamuni; Cameron J. Pedersen; Shi Gu; Yong Qiu Doughman; Michael W. Jenkins; Michiko Watanabe; Andrew M. Rollins
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Paper Abstract

Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman’s pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 April 2017
PDF: 1 pages
Proc. SPIE 10053, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI, 100530S (19 April 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2254932
Show Author Affiliations
Megan M. Sheehan, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Ganga Karunamuni, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Cameron J. Pedersen, STERIS Corp. (United States)
Shi Gu, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Yong Qiu Doughman, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Michael W. Jenkins, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Michiko Watanabe, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
Andrew M. Rollins, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10053:
Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
James G. Fujimoto; Joseph A. Izatt; Valery V. Tuchin, Editor(s)

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