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Proceedings Paper

Color normalization of histology slides using graph regularized sparse NMF
Author(s): Lingdao Sha; Dan Schonfeld; Amit Sethi
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Paper Abstract

Computer based automatic medical image processing and quantification are becoming popular in digital pathology. However, preparation of histology slides can vary widely due to differences in staining equipment, procedures and reagents, which can reduce the accuracy of algorithms that analyze their color and texture information. To re- duce the unwanted color variations, various supervised and unsupervised color normalization methods have been proposed. Compared with supervised color normalization methods, unsupervised color normalization methods have advantages of time and cost efficient and universal applicability. Most of the unsupervised color normaliza- tion methods for histology are based on stain separation. Based on the fact that stain concentration cannot be negative and different parts of the tissue absorb different stains, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and particular its sparse version (SNMF), are good candidates for stain separation. However, most of the existing unsupervised color normalization method like PCA, ICA, NMF and SNMF fail to consider important information about sparse manifolds that its pixels occupy, which could potentially result in loss of texture information during color normalization. Manifold learning methods like Graph Laplacian have proven to be very effective in interpreting high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised stain separation method called graph regularized sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (GSNMF). By considering the sparse prior of stain concentration together with manifold information from high-dimensional image data, our method shows better performance in stain color deconvolution than existing unsupervised color deconvolution methods, especially in keeping connected texture information. To utilized the texture information, we construct a nearest neighbor graph between pixels within a spatial area of an image based on their distances using heat kernal in lαβ space. The representation of a pixel in the stain density space is constrained to follow the feature distance of the pixel to pixels in the neighborhood graph. Utilizing color matrix transfer method with the stain concentrations found using our GSNMF method, the color normalization performance was also better than existing methods.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 March 2017
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 10140, Medical Imaging 2017: Digital Pathology, 1014010 (1 March 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2254214
Show Author Affiliations
Lingdao Sha, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago (United States)
Dan Schonfeld, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago (United States)
Amit Sethi, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (India)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10140:
Medical Imaging 2017: Digital Pathology
Metin N. Gurcan; John E. Tomaszewski, Editor(s)

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