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Proceedings Paper

Fast axial scanning for 2-photon microscopy using liquid lens technology
Author(s): Kayvan Forouhesh Tehrani; Min Kyoung Sun; Lohitash Karumbaiah; Luke J. Mortensen
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Paper Abstract

Scanning microscopy methods require movement of the focus in Z coordinates to produce an image of a 3-dimensional volume. In a typical imaging system, the optical setup is kept fixed and either the sample or the objective is translated with a mechanical stage driven by a stepper motor or a piezoelectric element. Mechanical Z scanning is precise, but its slow response and vulnerability to mechanical vibrations and stress make it disadvantageous to image dynamic, time-varying samples such as live cell structures. An alternative method less susceptible to these problems is to change the focal plane using conjugate optics. Deformable mirrors, acousto-optics, and electrically tunable lenses have been experimented with to achieve this goal and have attained very fast and precise Z-scanning without physically moving the sample. Here, we present the use of a liquid lens for fast axial scanning. Liquid lenses have a long functional life, high degree of phase shift, and low sensitivity to mechanical stress. They work on the principle of refraction at a liquid-liquid interface. At the boundary of a polar and an apolar liquid a spherical surface is formed whose curvature can be controlled by adjusting its relative wettability using electro-wetting. We characterize the effects of the lens on attainable Z displacement, beam spectral characteristics, and pulse duration as compared with mechanical scanning.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 March 2017
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 10070, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXIV, 100700Y (2 March 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2252992
Show Author Affiliations
Kayvan Forouhesh Tehrani, The Univ. of Georgia (United States)
Min Kyoung Sun, The Univ. of Georgia (United States)
Lohitash Karumbaiah, The Univ. of Georgia (United States)
Luke J. Mortensen, The Univ. of Georgia (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10070:
Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXIV
Thomas G. Brown; Carol J. Cogswell; Tony Wilson, Editor(s)

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