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Proceedings Paper

Detector modules and spectrometers for the TIME-Pilot [CII] intensity mapping experiment
Author(s): Jonathon Hunacek; James Bock; C. Matt Bradford; Bruce Bumble; Tzu-Ching Chang; Yun-Ting Cheng; Asantha Cooray; Abigail Crites; Steven Hailey-Dunsheath; Yan Gong; Chao-Te Li; Roger O’Brient; Erik Shirokoff; Corwin Shiu; Jason Sun; Zachary Staniszewski; Bade Uzgil; Michael Zemcov
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Paper Abstract

This proceeding presents the current TIME-Pilot instrument design and status with a focus on the close-packed modular detector arrays and spectrometers. Results of laboratory tests with prototype detectors and spectrometers are discussed. TIME-Pilot is a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array under development that will study the Epoch of Reionization (the period of time when the first stars and galaxies ionized the intergalactic medium) by mapping the fluctuations of the redshifted 157:7 μm emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ~ 5:2 to 8:5. As a tracer of star formation, the [CII] power spectrum can provide information on the sources driving reionization and complements 21 cm data (which traces neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium). Intensity mapping provides a measure of the mean [CII] intensity without the need to resolve and detect faint sources individually. We plan to target a 1 degree by 0.35 arcminute field on the sky and a spectral range of 199-305 GHz, producing a spatial-spectral slab which is 140 Mpc by 0.9 Mpc on-end and 1230 Mpc in the redshift direction. With careful removal of intermediate-redshift CO sources, we anticipate a detection of the halo-halo clustering term in the [CII] power spectrum consistent with current models for star formation history in 240 hours on the JCMT. TIME-Pilot will use two stacks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one stack per polarization) with a resolving power R ~ 100 and a spectral range of 183 to 326 GHz. The range is divided into 60 spectral channels, of which 16 at the band edges on each spectrometer serve as atmospheric monitors. The diffraction gratings are curved to produce a compact instrument, each focusing the diffracted light onto an output arc sampled by the 60 bolometers. The bolometers are built in buttable dies of 8 (low freqeuency) or 12 (high frequency) spectral channels by 8 spatial channels and are mated to the spectrometer stacks. Each detector consists of a gold micro-mesh absorber and a titanium transition edge sensor (TES). The detectors (1920 total) are designed to operate from a 250 mK base temperature in an existing cryostat with a photon-noise-dominated NEP of ~2 * 10-17 WHz-1-2. A set of flexible superconducting cables connect the detectors to a time-domain multiplexing SQUID readout system.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 July 2016
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 9914, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, 99140L (19 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2233762
Show Author Affiliations
Jonathon Hunacek, California Institute of Technology (United States)
James Bock, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
C. Matt Bradford, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
California Institute of Technology (United States)
Bruce Bumble, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Tzu-Ching Chang, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Taiwan)
Yun-Ting Cheng, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Asantha Cooray, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)
Abigail Crites, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Steven Hailey-Dunsheath, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Yan Gong, National Astronomical Observatories (China)
Chao-Te Li, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Taiwan)
Roger O’Brient, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
California Institute of Technology (United States)
Erik Shirokoff, The Univ. of Chicago (United States)
Corwin Shiu, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Jason Sun, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Zachary Staniszewski, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Bade Uzgil, Univ. of California Irvine (United States)
Michael Zemcov, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9914:
Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII
Wayne S. Holland; Jonas Zmuidzinas, Editor(s)

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