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Proceedings Paper

Low-loss nonlinear optical polymeric waveguide materials and devices
Author(s): Mart B. J. Diemeer; T. Boonstra; M. C.J.M. Donckers; A. M. van Haperen; Benno H. M. Hams; T. H. Hoekstra; Johannes W. Hofstraat; J. C. Lamers; WenYan Mertens; R. Ramsamoedj; Monique van Rheede; F. M.M. Suijten; U. E. Wiersum; R. H. Woudenberg; Berend Hendriksen; Winfried H. G. Horsthuis; Marcel K. Klein Koerkamp
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Paper Abstract

Recently developed photobleachable polymers show a loss of < 0.1 dB/cm at 1300 nm and < 0.15 dB/cm at 1550 nm. Nonchromophore containing polymers show film waveguide losses of < dB/cm at 1300 nm and 1550 nm. Refractive indices in these materials can be tuned within a range of 0.05 by changing the polymer composition. Multilayers of cross-linked (solvent resistant) layers, each 2-10 microns have been deposited by multiple spinning steps. Using these multilayers, fully embedded, fiber-compatible strip waveguide structures have been created by masked bleaching of multilayers with chromophore containing corelayers. The lateral refractive index contrast is thereby tuned by changing the chromophore content of the corepolymer. Poling-induced loss has been investigated by wavelength and polarization dependent measurements of losses in films. The results indicate that this loss is due to increased scattering. Bleached channel waveguides in a poled (at 125 V/micrometers ) nonlinear optical polymer have been made showing losses of < dB/cm at 1300 nm. Rapid photodegradation at 1300 nm has been observed in stilbene containing channel waveguides. In a nitrogen atmosphere no degradation was seen. The same is true for waveguides in air at 1550 nm. This suggests the attack of the stilbene chromophores by singlet oxygen. Therefore a new generation of low-loss, linear, and nonlinear optical polymers based on singlet oxygen resistant molecules has been developed. The linear optical polymers are used for the realization of low-insertion loss (< 2 dB), digital (switch voltage 3-6 V) and efficient (switching power < mW, cross talk - 20 dB) pigtailed and packaged 1 X 2 switches. They utilize the strong thermo-optic effect in polymers. Their switching time is therefore limited to 1 ms whereas their polarization dependence is < 0.3 dB.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 October 1995
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 2527, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, (5 October 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.222815
Show Author Affiliations
Mart B. J. Diemeer, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
T. Boonstra, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
M. C.J.M. Donckers, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
A. M. van Haperen, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
Benno H. M. Hams, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
T. H. Hoekstra, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
Johannes W. Hofstraat, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
J. C. Lamers, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
WenYan Mertens, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
R. Ramsamoedj, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
Monique van Rheede, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
F. M.M. Suijten, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
U. E. Wiersum, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
R. H. Woudenberg, Akzo Nobel Central Research (Netherlands)
Berend Hendriksen, Akzo Nobel Electronic Products BV (Netherlands)
Winfried H. G. Horsthuis, Akzo Nobel Electronic Products BV (Netherlands)
Marcel K. Klein Koerkamp, Akzo Nobel Electronic Products BV (Netherlands)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2527:
Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII
Gustaaf R. Moehlmann, Editor(s)

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