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Proceedings Paper

Integration of atomic layer deposited nanolaminates on silicon waveguides (Conference Presentation)
Author(s): Anton Autere; Lasse Karvonen; Antti Säynätjoki; Matthieu Roussey; John Roenn; Elina Färm; Marianna Kemell; Xiaoguang Tu; Tsung-Yang Liow; Patrick Lo; Mikko Ritala; Markku Leskelä; Harri Lipsanen; Seppo Honkanen; Zhipei Sun

Paper Abstract

Despite all the eminent advantages of silicon photonics, other materials need to be integrated to fulfill the functions that are difficult to realize with silicon alone. This is because silicon has a low light emission efficiency and a low electro-optic coefficient, limiting the use of silicon as a material for light sources and modulators. A strong two-photon absorption (TPA) at high intensities also limits the use of silicon in applications exploiting nonlinear effects. In addition, signal amplification is needed to compensate the insertion and propagation losses in silicon nanowaveguides. To address these issues we have demonstrated the integration of atomic layer deposited nanolaminates on silicon waveguides. Firstly we demonstrate slot waveguide ring resonators patterned on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer coated with an atomic layer deposited organic/inorganic nanolaminate structure, which consists of alternating layers of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) and polyimide (PI) [1]. These materials were selected since the ALD process for depositing Ta2O5/PI nanolaminate films is already available [2] and both materials exhibit high third order nonlinearities [3-4]. In our nanolaminate ring resonators, the optical power is not only confined in the narrow central air slot but also in several parallel sub-10 nm wide vertical polyimide slots. This indicates that the mode profiles in the silicon slot waveguide can be accurately tuned by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Our results show that ALD of organic and inorganic materials can be combined with conventional silicon waveguide fabrication techniques to create slot waveguide ring resonators with varying mode profiles. Secondly we demonstrate the integration of atomic layer deposited erbium-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanolaminates on silicon waveguides. This method provides an efficient way for controlling the concentration and distribution of erbium ions. We have applied this method on silicon strip and slot waveguides and show signal enhancement. Our results show that atomic layer deposited nanolaminates can potentially open new possibilities for various photonic applications, such as silicon photonic devices for light emission and amplification, optical sensing and all-optical signal processing. References [1] A. Autere, L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. Roussey, E. Färm, M. Kemell, X. Tu, T.Y. Liow, G.Q. Lo, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, S. Honkanen, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun, "Slot waveguide ring resonators coated by an atomic layer deposited organic/inorganic nanolaminate," Opt. Express 23, 26940-26951 (2015) [2] L. D. Salmi, E. Puukilainen, M. Vehkamäki, M. Heikkilä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic layer deposition of Ta2O5/polyimide nanolaminates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 15, 221–226 (2009). [3] S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides,” React. Funct. Polym. 44, 183–188 (2000). [4] C.-Y. Tai, J. Wilkinson, N. Perney, M. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. Finlayson, and J. Baumberg, “Determination of nonlinear refractive index in a Ta2O5 rib waveguide using self-phase modulation,” Opt. Express 12, 5110–5116 (2004).

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 July 2016
PDF: 2 pages
Proc. SPIE 9891, Silicon Photonics and Photonic Integrated Circuits V, 98910J (27 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2227097
Show Author Affiliations
Anton Autere, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)
Lasse Karvonen, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)
Antti Säynätjoki, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)
Matthieu Roussey, Univ. of Eastern Finland (Finland)
John Roenn, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)
Elina Färm, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
Marianna Kemell, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
Xiaoguang Tu, A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (Singapore)
Tsung-Yang Liow, A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (Singapore)
Patrick Lo, A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (Singapore)
Mikko Ritala, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
Markku Leskelä, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
Harri Lipsanen, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)
Seppo Honkanen, Univ. of Eastern Finland (Finland)
Zhipei Sun, Aalto Univ. School of Electrical Engineering (Finland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9891:
Silicon Photonics and Photonic Integrated Circuits V
Laurent Vivien; Lorenzo Pavesi; Stefano Pelli, Editor(s)

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