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Proceedings Paper

Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence
Author(s): Amrit Narasimhan; Steven Grzeskowiak; Jonathan Ostrander; Jonathon Schad; Eliran Rebeyev; Mark Neisser; Leonidas E. Ocola; Gregory Denbeaux; Robert L. Brainard
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Paper Abstract

In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism – internal excitation – in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 March 2016
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 9779, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXIII, 97790F (25 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2219850
Show Author Affiliations
Amrit Narasimhan, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Steven Grzeskowiak, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Jonathan Ostrander, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Jonathon Schad, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Eliran Rebeyev, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Mark Neisser, SUNY Polytechnic Institute SEMATECH (United States)
Leonidas E. Ocola, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Gregory Denbeaux, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Robert L. Brainard, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9779:
Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXIII
Christoph K. Hohle; Rick Uchida, Editor(s)

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