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The use of reverse iontophoresis based surface plasmon resonance for the development of a noninvasive real time transdermal biomarker sensor
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Paper Abstract

Recent developments in the identification of biomarkers offer a potential means to facilitate early disease detection, gauge treatment in drug therapy clinical trials, and to assess the impact of fatigue and/or stress as related to human physical and cognitive performance. For practical implementation, however, real-time sensing and quantification of such physiological biomarkers is preferred. Some key aspects in this process are continuous sample collection and real time detection. Traditionally, blood is considered the gold standard for samples but frequent phlebotomy is painful and inconvenient. Other sources like saliva and passive sweat cannot be precisely controlled and are affected by other limitations. Some of these can be addressed by reverse iontophoresis which is a noninvasive technique capable of facilitating controlled transport of biomolecules up to 20kDa in size across the skin barrier by passing a low level current between two dermal electrodes. The samples collected at the electrode site can then be monitored at site or transported via a microfluidic channel towards a sensor. In the case reported here, the sensor is based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which is a label free, real time, and highly sensitive optical sensing technique. The real time SPR detection of targeted biomarkers is then achieved through the use of aptamer surface modification. In this experiment, extraction and detection of orexin A, a stress related biomarker, is used for demonstration purposes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 March 2016
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 9715, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 971503 (4 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2208918
Show Author Affiliations
Niraj K. Gupta, Univ. of Toledo (United States)
Yongsoon Hwang, Univ. of Toledo (United States)
Brent D. Cameron, Univ. of Toledo (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9715:
Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Gerard L. Coté, Editor(s)

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