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Proceedings Paper

Long-range non-contact imaging photoplethysmography: cardiac pulse wave sensing at a distance
Author(s): Ethan B. Blackford; Justin R. Estepp; Alyssa M. Piasecki; Margaret A. Bowers; Samantha L. Klosterman
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Paper Abstract

Non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography uses photo-optical sensors to measure variations in light absorption, caused by blood volume pulsations, to assess cardiopulmonary parameters including pulse rate, pulse rate variability, and respiration rate. Recently, researchers have studied the applications and methodology of imaging photoplethysmography. Basic research has examined some of the variables affecting data quality and accuracy of imaging photoplethysmography including signal processing, imager parameters (e.g. frame rate and resolution), lighting conditions, subject motion, and subject skin tone. This technology may be beneficial for long term or continuous monitoring where contact measurements may be harmful (e.g. skin sensitivities) or where imperceptible or unobtrusive measurements are desirable. Using previously validated signal processing methods, we examined the effects of imager-to-subject distance on one-minute, windowed estimates of pulse rate. High-resolution video of 22, stationary participants was collected using an enthusiast-grade, mirrorless, digital camera equipped with a fully-manual, super-telephoto lens at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters with simultaneous contact measurements of electrocardiography, and fingertip photoplethysmography. By comparison, previous studies have usually been conducted with imager-to-subject distances of up to only a few meters. Mean absolute error for one-minute, windowed, pulse rate estimates (compared to those derived from gold-standard electrocardiography) were 2.0, 4.1, and 10.9 beats per minute at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters, respectively. Long-range imaging presents several unique challenges among which include decreased, observed light reflectance and smaller regions of interest. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that accurate pulse rate measurements can be obtained from over long imager-to-participant distances given these constraints.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 March 2016
PDF: 17 pages
Proc. SPIE 9715, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 971512 (4 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2208130
Show Author Affiliations
Ethan B. Blackford, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (United States)
Justin R. Estepp, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Alyssa M. Piasecki, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (United States)
Margaret A. Bowers, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (United States)
Samantha L. Klosterman, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9715:
Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Gerard L. Coté, Editor(s)

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