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Proceedings Paper • Open Access

Slow photons in vacuum as elementary particles
Author(s): Chander Mohan Singal

Paper Abstract

Maxwell equations for Electro-magnetic(EM) vector fields E and B are solved in vacuum, free from charges and currents, and EM wave packets propagating in z direction are formed using cylindrical coordinates ( s, φ, z ) with an average propagation vector k0 and a radial parameter γ used for defining Bessel function Jn ( γ s ) of n'th order. It is shown that these wave packets have a group velocity vg= ck0 / [k022]0.5 smaller than the standard velocity c of light in vacuum, and they spread in z direction with progression of time, like particles having non-zero rest mass m0 = ħ γ / c. It is shown that these slow photons can describe motion of elementary particles like electrons and protons with regard to their velocity and linear momentum . Quantization of energy U of these EM wave packets is done using the condition U = ħ c [k02 + γ2 + σ2]0.5 and then the angular momentum determined for them, (here σ is the standard deviation in the propagation vector k ). After quantization, the z components of the linear momentum and angular momentum of the wave packets are found to be ħ k0 and n ħ , respectively. It is shown that for γ much smaller than k0 these wave packets can appear like light photons , and for γ much larger than k0 these wave packets can appear like electrons and protons, with regard to their mechanics.

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 October 2005
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 9664, Ninth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics, 96642T (24 October 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.2207784
Show Author Affiliations
Chander Mohan Singal, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9664:
Ninth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics
François Flory, Editor(s)

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