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Proceedings Paper

Development of a resistivity standard for polymeric materials used in photovoltaic modules
Author(s): Michael D. Kempe; David C. Miller; Dylan L. Nobles; Keiichiro Sakurai; John Tucker; Jayesh G. Bokria; Tsuyoshi Shioda; Kumar Nanjundiah; Toshio Yoshihara; Jeff Birchmier; Oihana Zubillaga; John H. Wohlgemuth
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Paper Abstract

Photovoltaic (PV) modules, operate at high voltages and elevated temperatures, and are known to degrade because of leakage current to ground. Related degradation processes may include: electric/ionic corrosion, electrochemical deposition, electromigration, and/or charge build-up in thin layers. The use of polymeric materials with a high resistivity is known to reduce the rate of potential induced degradation processes. Because of this, PV materials suppliers are placing increased importance on the encapsulant bulk resistivity, but there is no universally accepted method for making this measurement. The development of a resistivity test standard is described in this paper. We have performed a number of exploratory and round-robin tests to establish a representative and reproducible method for determining the bulk resistivity of polymeric materials, including encapsulation, backsheet, edge seals, and adhesives. The duration of measurement has been shown to greatly affect the results, e.g., an increase as great as 100X was seen for different measurement times. The standard has been developed using measurements alternating between an "on" and "off" voltage state with a weighted averaging function and cycle times of an hour.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 September 2015
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 9563, Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems VIII, 956302 (23 September 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2189662
Show Author Affiliations
Michael D. Kempe, National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)
David C. Miller, National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)
Dylan L. Nobles, National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)
Keiichiro Sakurai, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)
John Tucker, Keithley Instruments, Inc. (United States)
Jayesh G. Bokria, Specialized Technology Resources, Inc. (United States)
Tsuyoshi Shioda, Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. (Japan)
Kumar Nanjundiah, The Dow Chemical Co. (United States)
Toshio Yoshihara, Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Jeff Birchmier, Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Oihana Zubillaga, TECNALIA (Spain)
John H. Wohlgemuth, National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9563:
Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems VIII
Neelkanth G. Dhere; John H. Wohlgemuth; Rebecca Jones-Albertus, Editor(s)

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