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Proceedings Paper

Liquid metal actuators: correctable mounting and assembly of thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors
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Paper Abstract

An ideal bonding agent for thin-shell x-ray mirrors could be quickly applied to joints and set with deterministic and stable properties. Unfortunately, mirror assembly methods have typically utilized various epoxy formulations which are messy, slow to apply and cure, and far from deterministic or stable. Problems include shrinkage, creep and high thermal and humidity sensitivity. Once the bond is set errors are frozen in and cannot be corrected. We are developing a new method for bonding thin-foil mirrors that has the potential to solve these problems. Our process to bond mirrors to housing reference points is achieved via small beads of a low-melting-point bonding agent (such as solder or thermoset). The mirror is bonded to small contact surface points under real-time metrology. If the position of the mirror needs to be adjusted after bonding, a small force is applied normal or parallel to the contact surface and a pulsed fiber laser is used to melt an ultrathin layer of the solder for a very short time. The joint is then compressed, stretched or sheared while molten before refreezing in a new position, enabling repeatable and stable mirror position adjustments along the direction of the force in nm-level steps with minimal heat input. We present results from our prototype apparatus demonstrating proof of principle. The initial experiment includes developing a technique to bond D263 glass to Kovar, designing and building a one-dimensional stage to precisely apply force, and using an infrared laser pulse to heat the joint while measuring position and force.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 September 2015
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 9603, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VII, 960312 (4 September 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2189499
Show Author Affiliations
Alexander R. Bruccoleri, Izentis LLC (United States)
Martin Klingensmith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Brandon Chalifoux, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Ralf K. Heilmann, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Mark L. Schattenburg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9603:
Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VII
Stephen L. O'Dell; Giovanni Pareschi, Editor(s)

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