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Proceedings Paper

Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings
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Paper Abstract

Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 – 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 September 2015
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 9603, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VII, 960316 (4 September 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2186842
Show Author Affiliations
Drew M. Miles, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
James H. Tutt, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
Casey T. DeRoo, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
Hannah Marlowe, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
Thomas J. Peterson, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
Randall L. McEntaffer, The Univ. of Iowa (United States)
Benedikt Menz, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Vadim Burwitz, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Gisela Hartner, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Christian Laubis, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Frank Scholze, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9603:
Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VII
Stephen L. O'Dell; Giovanni Pareschi, Editor(s)

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