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Proceedings Paper

Toward consistent radiometric calibration of the NOAA AVHRR visible and near-infrared data record
Author(s): Rajendra Bhatt; David R. Doelling; Benjamin R. Scarino; Arun Gopalan; Conor O. Haney
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Paper Abstract

The 35-year Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite-instrument data record is critical for studying decadal climate change, provided that the AVHRR sensors are consistently calibrated. Owing to the lack of onboard calibration capability, the AVHRR data need to be adjusted using vicarious approaches. One of the greatest challenges hampering these vicarious calibration techniques, however, is the degrading orbits of the NOAA satellites that house the instruments, or, more specifically, the fact that the satellites eventually drift into a terminator orbit several years after launch. This paper presents a uniform sensor calibration approach for the AVHRR visible (VIS) and nearinfrared (NIR) records using specifically designed NOAA-16 AVHRR-based, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) calibration models that take into account orbit degradation. These models are based on multiple invariant Earth targets, including Saharan deserts, polar ice scenes, and tropical deep-convective clouds. All invariant targets are referenced to the Aqua- MODIS Collection-6 calibration via transfer of the Aqua-MODIS calibration to NOAA-16 AVHRR using simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) comparisons over the North Pole. A spectral band adjustment factor, based on SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) spectral radiances, is used to account for the spectrally-induced biases caused by the spectral response function (SRF) differences of the AVHRR and MODIS sensors. Validation of the AVHRR Earth target calibration is performed by comparisons with contemporary MODIS SNOs. Calibration consistency between Earth targets validates the historical AVHRR record.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 September 2015
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 9607, Earth Observing Systems XX, 960703 (8 September 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2186816
Show Author Affiliations
Rajendra Bhatt, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
David R. Doelling, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States)
Benjamin R. Scarino, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
Arun Gopalan, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
Conor O. Haney, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9607:
Earth Observing Systems XX
James J. Butler; Xiaoxiong (Jack) Xiong; Xingfa Gu, Editor(s)

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