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Proceedings Paper

Photomasks today and tomorrow
Author(s): Geoffrey M. Akiki
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Paper Abstract

Successive generations of semiconductors have necessitated increasingly more complex technologies to produce the desired densities, speeds and other functions. The requirements placed on the photomasks used to produce large-scale integrated circuits have concurrently increased. These changing requirements have dictated photomask technology shifts from optical steppers to electron-beam and laser pattern generators, more tightly controlled processes, as well as the investigation of techniques such as phase-shifting. The outlook for the future indicates that requirements will continue to grow more complex. This presentation describes projected roadmaps for photomask specifications and some suggested strategies to meet these enhanced requirements. Potential problem areas are highlighted, as well as related issues pertaining to the mask equipment and materials industry. A brief overview is also given on the current challenges associated with photomasks with particular emphasis on half-micron DUV lithography, and the 0.35-, 0.25- and 0.18-micron challenges. Techniques such as optical proximity correction and phase-shifting are also discussed in terms of their applicability and insertion into manufacturing. The current status of X- ray masks, as well as projections for the technical requirements and capabilities associated with their manufacture, is included. An outline of the Microlithographic Mask Development (MMD) contract objectives is also presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 July 1995
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 2512, Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, (3 July 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.212757
Show Author Affiliations
Geoffrey M. Akiki, IBM Microelectronics Div. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2512:
Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II
Hideo Yoshihara, Editor(s)

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