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Proceedings Paper

Application of x rays to nonintrusive inspection: an assessment
Author(s): Eugene R. Leach; Michael L. Spradling
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Paper Abstract

Two Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) sponsored x-ray nonintrusive inspection system test programs have recently been conducted. A high energy x-ray system designed to inspect air-sea-land intermodal cargo containers and their contents was tested at the Nonintrusive Inspection Technology Testbed (NITT) located in the Port of Tacoma, Washington and a low energy x-ray system designed primarily to examine empty tractor trailer vehicles was tested at the Commercial Inspection Border Crossing Facility at Otay Mesa, California. Both test programs involved the use of a Red/Blue/Silver Team test concept and were conducted in accordance with test protocols. The 'Red Team' which represented the 'smugglers' has the responsibility for preparing cargoes/vehicles for inspection at a location off-site from the inspection facilities. A computer-based algorithm originally developed under contract with ARPA for testing at the NITT was used to randomly select the preparation of the cargoes. The control vehicles were subsequently sent to the test site for x-ray interrogation and analysis. The 'Blue Team' which represented US Customs Service operations analyzed the x- ray images and made recommendation for release/inspection of the control vehicles. The results of the analyses were returned to the Red Team location for evaluation and data compilation by an unbiased observation team. This paper presents discussions related to these x-ray systems' tests including transport techniques, the use of backscatter and transmission imaging for cargo inspection, resolution, analytical tools, and other related considerations for these two systems.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 May 1995
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 2497, Public Safety/Law Enforcement Technology, (30 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210498
Show Author Affiliations
Eugene R. Leach, Eugene R. Leach & Associates (United States)
Michael L. Spradling, Battelle Memorial Institute/Columbus Div. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2497:
Public Safety/Law Enforcement Technology
Raymond J. Mataloni Sr.; Raymond D. Mintz, Editor(s)

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