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Proceedings Paper

Imaging diffusive media using time-independent and time-harmonic sources: dependence of image quality on imaging algorithms, target volume, weight matrix, and view angles
Author(s): Jenghwa Chang; Raphael Aronson; Harry L. Graber; Randall Locke Barbour
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Paper Abstract

We present results examining the dependence of image quality for imaging in dense scattering media as influenced by the choice of parameters pertaining to the physical measurement and factors influencing the efficiency of the computation. The former includes the density of the weight matrix as affected by the target volume, view angle, and source condition. The latter includes the density of the weight matrix and type of algorithm used. These were examined by solving a one-step linear perturbation equation derived from the transport equation using three different algorithms: POCS, CGD, and SART algorithms with contraints. THe above were explored by evaluating four different 3D cylindrical phantom media: a homogeneous medium, an media containing a single black rod on the axis, a single black rod parallel to the axis, and thirteen black rods arrayed in the shape of an 'X'. Solutions to the forward problem were computed using Monte Carlo methods for an impulse source, from which was calculated time- independent and time harmonic detector responses. The influence of target volume on image quality and computational efficiency was studied by computing solution to three types of reconstructions: 1) 3D reconstruction, which considered each voxel individually, 2) 2D reconstruction, which assumed that symmetry along the cylinder axis was know a proiri, 3) 2D limited reconstruction, which assumed that only those voxels in the plane of the detectors contribute information to the detecot readings. The effect of view angle was explored by comparing computed images obtained from a single source, whose position was varied, as well as for the type of tomographic measurement scheme used (i.e., radial scan versus transaxial scan). The former condition was also examined for the dependence of the above on choice of source condition [ i.e., cw (2D reconstructions) versus time-harmonic (2D limited reconstructions) source]. The efficiency of the computational effort was explored, principally, by conducting a weight matrix 'threshold titration' study. This involved computing the ratio of each matrix element to the maximum element of its row and setting this to zero if the ratio was less than a preselected threshold. Results obtained showed that all three types of reconstructions provided good image quality. The 3D reconstruction outperformed the other two reconstructions. The time required for 2D and 2D limited reconstruction is much less (< 10%) than that for the 3D reconstruction. The 'threshold titration' study shows that artifacts were present when the threshold was 5% or higher, and no significant differences of image quality were observed when the thresholds were less tha 1%, in which case 38% (21,849 of 57,600) of the total weight elements were set to zero. Restricting the view angle produced degradation in image quality, but, in all cases, clearly recognizable images were obtained.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 May 1995
PDF: 17 pages
Proc. SPIE 2389, Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, (30 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.209995
Show Author Affiliations
Jenghwa Chang, SUNY/Brooklyn (United States)
Raphael Aronson, Bioimaging Sciences Corp. (United States)
Harry L. Graber, SUNY/Brooklyn (United States)
Randall Locke Barbour, SUNY/Brooklyn (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2389:
Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation
Britton Chance; Robert R. Alfano, Editor(s)

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