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Proceedings Paper

Estimating the marine signal in the near infrared for atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery over turbid waters
Author(s): Alice Bourdet; Robert J. Frouin
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Paper Abstract

The classic atmospheric correction algorithm, routinely applied to second-generation ocean-color sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS, consists of (i) estimating the aerosol reflectance in the red and near infrared (NIR) where the ocean is considered black (i.e., totally absorbing), and (ii) extrapolating the estimated aerosol reflectance to shorter wavelengths. The marine reflectance is then retrieved by subtraction. Variants and improvements have been made over the years to deal with non-null reflectance in the red and near infrared, a general situation in estuaries and the coastal zone, but the solutions proposed so far still suffer some limitations, due to uncertainties in marine reflectance modeling in the near infrared or difficulty to extrapolate the aerosol signal to the blue when using observations in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), a spectral range far from the ocean-color wavelengths. To estimate the marine signal (i.e., the product of marine reflectance and atmospheric transmittance) in the near infrared, the proposed approach is to decompose the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared to shortwave infrared into principal components. Since aerosol scattering is smooth spectrally, a few components are generally sufficient to represent the perturbing signal, i.e., the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared can be determined from measurements in the shortwave infrared where the ocean is black. This gives access to the marine signal in the near infrared, which can then be used in the classic atmospheric correction algorithm. The methodology is evaluated theoretically from simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance for a wide range of geophysical conditions and angular geometries and applied to actual MODIS imagery acquired over the Gulf of Mexico. The number of discarded pixels is reduced by over 80% using the PC modeling to determine the marine signal in the near infrared prior to applying the classic atmospheric correction algorithm.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 November 2014
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 9261, Ocean Remote Sensing and Monitoring from Space, 926117 (21 November 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2074009
Show Author Affiliations
Alice Bourdet, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ. of California San Diego (United States)
Robert J. Frouin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ. of California San Diego (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9261:
Ocean Remote Sensing and Monitoring from Space
Robert J. Frouin; Delu Pan; Hiroshi Murakami, Editor(s)

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