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Proceedings Paper

Detection of low concentration formaldehyde gas by photonic crystal sensor fabricated by nanoimprint process in polymer material
Author(s): A. Boersma; Renz J. van Ee; Ralph S. A. Stevens; Milan Saalmink; Martin D. B. Charlton; Michael E. Pollard; Ruiqi Chen; Ville Kontturi; Pentti Karioja; Teemu Alajoki
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Paper Abstract

This paper describes experimental measurement results for photonic crystal sensor devices which have been functionalized for gas sensing applications. The sensor consists of a two dimensional photonic crystal etched into a slab waveguide having a refractive index of 1.7-1.9. Test devices were fabricated from SiON material on silicon / silicon dioxide platform, and also in polymer materials on silicon platform. The inorganic photonic crystals were made using direct write electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The polymeric devices were made by nano-imprint lithography using the SiON structure as the imprint master. The high refractive index polymer was composed of a TiO2 - UV resin nanocomposite having a nanoparticle fraction between 50 and 60 wt%. This resulted in a tunable refractive index between 1.7 and 1.85. Devices were functionalized for gas sensing applications by coating the surface with a chemical receptor. This responsive layer reacts with the target gas and changes its refractive index. This change causes the angle of out-coupling to change slightly. In this paper we report successful detection of formaldehyde in air at sub ppm levels, and discuss details of chemical functionalization of the PC sensor.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 May 2014
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 9141, Optical Sensing and Detection III, 91410F (15 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2052558
Show Author Affiliations
A. Boersma, TNO (Netherlands)
Renz J. van Ee, TNO Science and Industry (Netherlands)
Ralph S. A. Stevens, TNO Science and Industry (Netherlands)
Milan Saalmink, TNO Science and Industry (Netherlands)
Martin D. B. Charlton, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
Michael E. Pollard, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
Ruiqi Chen, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
Ville Kontturi, Nanocomp Oy Ltd. (Finland)
Pentti Karioja, VTT Technical Research Ctr. of Finland (Finland)
Teemu Alajoki, VTT Technical Research Ctr. of Finland (Finland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9141:
Optical Sensing and Detection III
Francis Berghmans; Anna G. Mignani; Piet De Moor, Editor(s)

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