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Proceedings Paper

650 GHz bistatic scattering measurements on human skin
Author(s): Richard A. Chamberlin; Natalie Mujica-Schwahn; Erich N. Grossman
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Paper Abstract

Many groups are developing submillimeter cameras that will be used to screen human subjects for improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other threat items hidden beneath their clothing. To interpret submillimeter camera images the scattering properties, specifically the bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) must be known. This problem is not trivial because surfaces of man-made objects and human skin have topographic features comparable to the wavelength of submillimeter radiation—thus simple, theoretical scattering approximations do not apply. To address this problem we built a goniometer instrument to measure the BSDF from skin surfaces of live human subjects illuminated with a beam from a 650 GHz synthesized source. To obtain some multi-spectral information, the instrument was reconfigured with a 160 GHz source. Skin areas sampled are from the hand, interior of the forearm, abdomen, and back. The 650 GHz beam has an approximately Gaussian profile with a FWHM of approximately 1 cm. Instrument characteristics: angular resolution 2.9; noise floor -45 dB/sr; dynamic range ˃ 70 dB; either s or p-polarization; 25 bidirectional-scattering-angle ≤ 180 ; The human scattering target skin area was placed exactly on the goniometer center of rotation with normal angle of incidence to the source beam. Scattering power increased at the higher frequency. This new work enables radiometrically correct models of humans.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 June 2014
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 9078, Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XVII, 90780B (9 June 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2050729
Show Author Affiliations
Richard A. Chamberlin, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Univ. of Colorado Boulder (United States)
Natalie Mujica-Schwahn, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Univ. of Colorado Boulder (United States)
Erich N. Grossman, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9078:
Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XVII
David A. Wikner; Arttu R. Luukanen, Editor(s)

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