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Proceedings Paper

Electrical and optical properties of ZnO bulk crystals with and without lithium grown by the hydrothermal technique
Author(s): Buguo Wang; Bruce Claflin; Michael Callahan; Z. -Q. Fang; David Look
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Paper Abstract

Lithium is usually added into the solution to improve ZnO hydrothermal growth; however, lithium doping affects the properties of the resulting crystals. Optical and electrical properties of hydrothermal ZnO bulk crystals without lithium, have been studied by photoluminescence and Hall-effect measurements. High quality ZnO crystals without lithium were grown in H2O/D2O and in NH3-H2O solutions. The crystals grown from H2O/D2O are conductive with resistivities of 0.6-0.7 Ωcm and mobilities of ~ 100 cm2/Vs, while lithium doped ZnO crystals typically have resistivities of ~ 103Ω-cm and mobilities of ~ 200 cm2/Vs, but can be varied from dozens to 1010 Ω-cm depending on lithium concentration. Lithium-free but nitrogen doped crystals grown in NH3-H2O solution have resistivities of 1×100 Ω-cm and sometimes show p-type conduction; the resistivity increases to ~ 1×108 Ω-cm after annealing at 600° C in air. Lithium and nitrogen co-doped ZnO crystals have resistivities of 108-1012 Ω-cm and are semi-insulating after annealling. Electronic irradiation also increases the ZnO resistivity. For lithium-doped samples, a 3.357 eV peak can be seen in the photoluminescence spectra. This is close to the donor-exciton peaks in indium-doped ZnO where 3.3586 eV and 3.357 eV were found on the C+ and C- faces, respectively. More studies are needed to identify lithium-related complexes (defects).

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 March 2014
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 8987, Oxide-based Materials and Devices V, 89871D (8 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2042344
Show Author Affiliations
Buguo Wang, Wright State Univ. (United States)
Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Bruce Claflin, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Michael Callahan, Greentech Solutions, Inc. (United States)
Z. -Q. Fang, Wright State Univ. (United States)
David Look, Wright State Univ. (United States)
Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Wyle Labs., Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8987:
Oxide-based Materials and Devices V
Ferechteh H. Teherani; David C. Look; David J. Rogers, Editor(s)

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