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Initial formal toxicity evaluation of APC-2, a novel fluorescent tracer agent for real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate in preparation for a first-in-man clinical trial
Author(s): Joseph E. Bugaj; Richard B. Dorshow
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Paper Abstract

The fluorescent tracer agent 2,5-bis[N-(1-carboxy-2-hydroxy)]carbamoyl-3,6-diaminopyrazine, designated APC-2, has been developed with properties and attributes necessary for use as a direct measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison to known standard exogenous GFR agents in animal models has demonstrated an excellent correlation. A clinical trial to demonstrate this same correlation in humans is in preparation. A battery of formal toxicity tests necessary for regulatory clearance to proceed with a clinical trial has been recently completed on this new fluorescent tracer agent. These include single dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs to determine overall toxicity and toxicokinetics of the compound. Blood compatibility, mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, and several other assays were also completed. Toxicity assessments were based on mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption and anatomical pathology. Blood samples were collected to assess pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, area under the curve, and clearance. Urine samples were collected to assess distribution. Doses of up to 200-300 times the estimated human dose were administered. No test-article related effects were noted on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic observations and no abnormal pathology was seen in either macroscopic or microscopic evaluations of any organs or tissues. All animals survived to scheduled sacrifice. Transient discoloration of skin and urine was noted at the higher dose levels in both species as expected from a highly fluorescent compound and was not considered pathological. Thus initial toxicology studies of this new fluorescent tracer agent APC-2 have resulted in no demonstrable pathological test article concerns.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 March 2014
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 8956, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications VI, 89560I (5 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2039881
Show Author Affiliations
Joseph E. Bugaj, MediBeacon LLC (United States)
Richard B. Dorshow, MediBeacon LLC (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8956:
Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications VI
Samuel Achilefu; Ramesh Raghavachari, Editor(s)

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