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Proceedings Paper

Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography
Author(s): Gennifer T. Smith; Kristen L. Lurie; Saara A. Khan; Joseph C. Liao; Audrey K. Ellerbee
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Paper Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC), the gold standard for imaging bladder cancer. OCT can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, which enables it to stage cancers and detect tumors that are otherwise invisible to WLC. Currently, OCT systems have too slow a speed and too small a field of view for comprehensive bladder imaging, which limits its clinical utility. Validation and feasibility testing of technological refinements aimed to provide faster imaging and wider fields of view necessitates a realistic bladder phantom. We present a novel process to fabricate the first such phantom that mimics both the optical and morphological properties of layers of the healthy and pathologic bladder wall as they characteristically appear with OCT. The healthy regions of the silicone-based phantom comprises three layers: the urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria, each containing an appropriate concentration of titanium dioxide to mimic its distinct scattering properties. As well, the layers each possess a unique surface appearance imposed by a textured mold. Within this phantom, pathologic tissue-mimicking regions are created by thickening specific layers or creating inclusions that disrupt the layered appearance of the bladder wall, as is characteristic of bladder carcinomas. This phantom can help to evaluate the efficacy of new OCT systems and software for tumor localization. Moreover, the procedure we have developed is highly generalizable for the creation of OCT-relevant, multi-layer phantoms for tissues that incorporate diseased states characterized by the loss of layered structures.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 March 2014
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 8945, Design and Performance Validation of Phantoms Used in Conjunction with Optical Measurement of Tissue VI, 89450E (3 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2036402
Show Author Affiliations
Gennifer T. Smith, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Kristen L. Lurie, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Saara A. Khan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Joseph C. Liao, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine (United States)
Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System (United States)
Audrey K. Ellerbee, Stanford Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8945:
Design and Performance Validation of Phantoms Used in Conjunction with Optical Measurement of Tissue VI
Robert J. Nordstrom; Jean-Pierre Bouchard; David W. Allen, Editor(s)

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