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Proceedings Paper

20:1 projection soft x-ray lithography using trilevel resist
Author(s): Tanya E. Jewell; M. M. Becker; John E. Bjorkholm; Jeffrey Bokor; Ludwig Eichner; Richard R. Freeman; William M. Mansfield; Alastair A. MacDowell; M. L. O'Malley; Eric L. Raab; William T. Silfvast; L. H. Szeto; Donald M. Tennant; Warren K. Waskiewicz; Donald L. White; David L. Windt; Obert R. Wood; John H. Bruning
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Paper Abstract

We demonstrate nearly diffraction limited printing using soft x-ray radiation of approximately 36 and 14 nm wavelength. As an imaging system we used a-20X-reduction Schwarzschild-type objective with iridium coated mirrors for use at 36 nm and Mo/Si multilayer coated mirrors for use at 14 nm. An off-axis aperture and illumination were used to eliminate the central obscuration in the imaging system caused by the primary mirror. Two types of masks were used for exposures: an open-stencil one for 36 nm and a silicon membrane with a Ge absorber for 14 nm. The high absorption of carbonbased polymers at these wavelengths requires that imaging resist be very thin. Thin resist layers are not robust and, by themselves, not very useful for processing. By incorporating them into a tn-level resist, however, we have exposed, developed, and transferred features as small as 0.1 jm into silicon.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 May 1990
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 1263, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Technology: Submicrometer Lithographies IX, (1 May 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.20173
Show Author Affiliations
Tanya E. Jewell, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
M. M. Becker, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
John E. Bjorkholm, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Jeffrey Bokor, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. and Univ. of California/Berkeley (United States)
Ludwig Eichner, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Richard R. Freeman, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
William M. Mansfield, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Alastair A. MacDowell, Brookhaven National Lab. (United States)
M. L. O'Malley, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Eric L. Raab, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
William T. Silfvast, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
L. H. Szeto, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Donald M. Tennant, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Warren K. Waskiewicz, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
Donald L. White, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
David L. Windt, AT&T Bell Labs. and Univ. of M (United States)
Obert R. Wood, AT&T Bell Labs. (United States)
John H. Bruning, GCA Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1263:
Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Technology: Submicrometer Lithographies IX
Douglas J. Resnick, Editor(s)

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