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Proceedings Paper

Use of x-ray fluorescence for in-situ detection of metals
Author(s): W. T. Elam Elam; Robert R. Whitlock; John V. Gilfrich
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Paper Abstract

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a well-established, non-destructive method of determining elemental concentrations at ppm levels in complex samples. It can operate in atmosphere with no sample preparation, and provides accuracies of 1% or better under optimum conditions. This report addresses two sets of issues concerning the use of x-ray fluorescence as a sensor technology for the cone penetrometer, for shipboard waste disposal, or for other in-situ, real- time environmental applications. The first issue concerns the applicability of XRF to these applications, and includes investigation of detection limits and matrix effects. We have evaluated the detection limits and quantitative accuracy of a sensor mock-up for metals in soils under conditions expected in the field. In addition, several novel ways of improving the lower limits of detection to reach the drinking water regulatory limits have been explored. The second issue is the engineering involved with constructing a spectrometer within the 1.75 inch diameter of the penetrometer pipe, which is the most rigorous physical constraint. Only small improvements over current state-of-the-art are required. Additional advantages of XRF are that no radioactive sources or hazardous materials are used in the sensor design, and no reagents or any possible sources of ignition are involved.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 January 1995
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 2367, Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, (19 January 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.199681
Show Author Affiliations
W. T. Elam Elam, Naval Research Lab. (United States)
Robert R. Whitlock, Naval Research Lab. (United States)
John V. Gilfrich, SFA, Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2367:
Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring
Ishwar D. Aggarwal; Stuart Farquharson; Eric Koglin, Editor(s)

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