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Proceedings Paper

Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum
Author(s): Paul Milgram; Haruo Takemura; Akira Utsumi; Fumio Kishino
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Paper Abstract

In this paper we discuss augmented reality (AR) displays in a general sense, within the context of a reality-virtuality (RV) continuum, encompassing a large class of `mixed reality' (MR) displays, which also includes augmented virtuality (AV). MR displays are defined by means of seven examples of existing display concepts in which real objects and virtual objects are juxtaposed. Essential factors which distinguish different MR display systems from each other are presented, first by means of a table in which the nature of the underlying scene, how it is viewed, and the observer's reference to it are compared, and then by means of a three dimensional taxonomic framework comprising: extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor. A principal objective of the taxonomy is to clarify terminology issues and to provide a framework for classifying research across different disciplines.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 December 1995
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (21 December 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.197321
Show Author Affiliations
Paul Milgram, ATR Communication Systems Research Labs. (Japan)
Haruo Takemura, ATR Communication Systems Research Labs. (Japan)
Akira Utsumi, ATR Communication Systems Research Labs. (Japan)
Fumio Kishino, ATR Communication Systems Research Labs. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2351:
Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies
Hari Das, Editor(s)

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