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Proceedings Paper

Soft x-ray spectrometer for in situ monitoring of thin-film growth
Author(s): Per Skytt; Carl J. Englund; Nial Wassdahl; Derrick C. Mancini; Joseph Nordgren
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Paper Abstract

We have designed and constructed a compact spectrometer dedicated to in-situ characterization of thin films during deposition, using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. It consists of a Rowland-circle mounted spherical grating and entrance slit, or slit array to enhance throughput. A 2D position-sensitive detector (microchannel plate stack and resistive anode) is mounted tangent to the image of the slit(s) on the Rowland circle. The instrument covers an energy range of 240 - 700 eV using a 300 1/mm grating in the first order. Thus, the spectrometer simultaneously records K emission for low-Z elements C through F, while L emission for 3D metals can be recorded in first or higher orders. The resolution is approximately 300, allowing chemical analysis. Both detector and grating are housed in a vacuum chamber that is turbomolecularly pumped to a pressure below 10-6 Torr. The instrument can be attached to any process chamber using a standard UHV flange. The slit extends into the process chamber separated from the housing by a valve. This valve can be closed, or in one of two open positions where thin foils serve as vacuum windows to protect the detector and grating, and as filters to reduce background counts from UV light. The spectrometer has successfully monitored a variety of processes in situ, including growth of optical TiN films by reactive magnetron sputter deposition, synchrotron radiation induced CVD of metallic films, and hot-filament CVD growth of diamond.

Paper Details

Date Published: 7 November 1994
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 2283, X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, (7 November 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.193191
Show Author Affiliations
Per Skytt, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
Carl J. Englund, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
Nial Wassdahl, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
Derrick C. Mancini, Uppsala Univ. (United States)
Joseph Nordgren, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2283:
X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry
Silvano Fineschi, Editor(s)

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