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Proceedings Paper

Multilayer reflection-type zone plates and blazed gratings for the normal incidence soft x-ray region
Author(s): Ulf Kleineberg; Hans-Juergen Stock; D. Menke; K. Osterried; Bernt Schmiedeskamp; Ulrich Heinzmann; Detlef Fuchs; Peter Mueller; Frank Scholze; Klaus F. Heidemann; Bruno Nelles; Juergen Thieme
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Paper Abstract

Here we report on the fabrication and analysis of two different types of laterally structured multilayers, which act as highly efficient x-ray optical elements for focusing or spectral dispersion of soft x-rays at (near) normal incidence. The microfocusing of soft x-rays at (near) normal incidence with plane reflection optics can be obtained by multilayer Bragg-Fresnel zone plates. A circular condensor zone plate structure (2.9 mm diameter, 417 zones, inner zone radius 50 micrometers , outer zone width 0.9 micrometers ) has been recorded by holographic lithography followed by ion beam etching into a Mo-Si multilayer mirror of 24 periods and a doublelayer thickness of 7.2 nm. The focusing properties analyzed by soft x-ray reflectometry at (lambda) equals 13.8 nm show a focal spot size smaller than 40 micrometers measured 160 mm behind the multilayer zone plate. Multilayer blazed gratings offer the opportunity for highly resolved spectral dispersion of soft x-rays due to the possible combination of high efficiency and high diffraction orders with almost the whole intensity diffracted in one diffraction order. The sawtooth profile of a blazed grating structure (1221 l/mm, blaze angle 1.5 degree(s)) has been ruled into a 200 nm thick Au-film which has been deposited onto a plane glass substrate. A Mo/Si multilayer of 15 periods and a doublelayer thickness of 7.2 nm has been deposited onto the grating substrate. In order to smooth the rough Au-surface and to prevent interdiffusion of the Au-film with the upper Mo-Si multilayer a carbon film has been evaporated onto the Au-grating surface before the deposition of the soft x-ray coating. This procedure results in a significant increase of diffraction efficiency. The multilayer grating has been matched working on blaze in the third diffraction order, where an absolute diffraction efficiency of 3.4% at (lambda) equals 14 nm has been measured, while only 1.1% has been achieved for a similar grating without a carbon interlayer.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 November 1994
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 2279, Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, (11 November 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.193143
Show Author Affiliations
Ulf Kleineberg, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
Hans-Juergen Stock, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
D. Menke, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
K. Osterried, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
Bernt Schmiedeskamp, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
Ulrich Heinzmann, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)
Detlef Fuchs, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Peter Mueller, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Frank Scholze, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Klaus F. Heidemann, Carl Zeiss (Germany)
Bruno Nelles, Carl Zeiss (Germany)
Juergen Thieme, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2279:
Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics
Richard B. Hoover; Arthur B. C. Walker, Editor(s)

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