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Proceedings Paper

Integrated optical Butler matrix for beam forming in phased-array antennas
Author(s): Walter Charczenko; Marc R. Surette; Paul J. Matthews; Holger Klotz; Alan Rolf Mickelson
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Paper Abstract

Butler matrices, consisting of 3 dB directional couplers and phase shifters, can be used to obtain specific phase relationships between the signals on the feedlines of the various antenna elements in a phased array system. Microwave Butler matrices consisting of microwave phase shifters and directional couplers are difficult to fabricate because of crosstalk and EMI. Integrated optical Butler matrices, in addition to being immune to EMI and having negligible cross talk, are small in size, lightweight and can be fabricated on a single substrate. Some of the advantages of using an integrated optical Butler matrix for beam steering and detection in a phased array system are discussed. Integrated optical directional couplers are fabricated on LiNbO3 substrates by a proton exchange and thermal annealing technique. A method of obtaining accurate 3 dB directional couplers is presented. Statistics based on the experimental measurements of these directional couplers are used to demonstrate the relative insensitivity of the Butler matrix performance to variations in fabrication parameters. The S/N and dynamic range of a sysem employing a Butler matrix with an optical local oscillator are calculated and compared to present-day phased-array antenna systems.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 June 1990
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 1217, Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas II, (1 June 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.18158
Show Author Affiliations
Walter Charczenko, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)
Marc R. Surette, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)
Paul J. Matthews, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)
Holger Klotz, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)
Alan Rolf Mickelson, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1217:
Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas II
Brian M. Hendrickson; Gerhard A. Koepf, Editor(s)

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