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Proceedings Paper

Surface-emitting optical devices for 2D integration
Author(s): Takahiro Numai
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Paper Abstract

With the growing interest in photonic switching and optical information processing, 2D optical interconnect systems have been extensively studied. The key devices for these systems are surface-emitting optical devices. As surface-emitting optical functional devices, we have developed vertical-to-surface transmission electro-photonic devices (VSTEPs) based on a concept of fusion of electronics and photonics in a device level. These VSTEPs have several functions, such as light emission, light detection, memory, and logical operation. Recently, a pnpn VSTEP with a vertical cavity (VC-VSTEP), which operates as a laser in the on-state, has been demonstrated. To obtain a highly integrated 2D array, low consumption power for each device is needed. Therefore, we have to reduce threshold current. Here, threshold reduction by photon recycling is reviewed. The sidewalls of VC-VSTEPs are covered with gold film which has high reflectivity. This gold film retains spontaneously emitted photons in the optical cavity, and a large part of spontaneously emitted photons is absorbed and the carriers are regenerated. This photon recycling of spontaneous emission can reduce the threshold current without sacrificing the light-output power in contrast to microcavity lasers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 June 1994
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 2145, Nonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion, (2 June 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.177166
Show Author Affiliations
Takahiro Numai, NEC Corp. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2145:
Nonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion
Nasser Peyghambarian; Henry Everitt; Robert C. Eckardt; Dennis D. Lowenthal; Robert C. Eckardt; Dennis D. Lowenthal; Nasser Peyghambarian; Henry Everitt, Editor(s)

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