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Proceedings Paper

Modeling of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for x-ray lithography
Author(s): Azalia A. Krasnoperova; Steven J. Rhyner; Yueqi Zhu; James Welch Taylor; Franco Cerrina; Whitson G. Waldo
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Paper Abstract

This paper reports the initial results on modeling of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for x-ray lithography. A positive tone chemically amplified photoresist, APEX-M from the IBM Corp., was exposed with synchrotron radiation. A kinetic model for exposure and post- exposure bake has been developed. The FTIR spectroscopy measurement data show that the photoacid loss reaction during post-exposure bake is described as a second order reaction. For the mask patterned photoresist, this leads to a nonlinear diffusion -- reaction equation. It was shown that the second order photoacid loss mechanism results in different values of the photoacid diffusion range for different exposure doses. A simulation method has been developed to take into account simultaneously photoacid diffusion and photoacid loss for the latent image of the photoresist. The x-ray exposure simulation tool XLITH and the photoresist development simulator SAMPLE-3D have been used for verification of the model for 0.25 micrometers patterns. The experimental and simulated profiles have shown good agreement.

Paper Details

Date Published: 13 May 1994
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 2194, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing IV, (13 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175805
Show Author Affiliations
Azalia A. Krasnoperova, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
Steven J. Rhyner, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
Yueqi Zhu, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
James Welch Taylor, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
Franco Cerrina, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
Whitson G. Waldo, Motorola Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2194:
Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing IV
David O. Patterson, Editor(s)

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