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Proceedings Paper

Phase contrast and DIC instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology
Author(s): Heinz Gundlach
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Paper Abstract

Nomarski's differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is discussed in comparison to Zernike's phase contrast (PhC) microscopy. The possibilities and limits of both are demonstrated by various applications. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics makes it possible to obtain a series of 'optical sections' through rather thick living specimens (e.g. head of water flea, salivary gland of Drosophila, Xenopus nucleolus, sea urchen egg, mouse embryo). PhC and DIC optics are today available for high resolution light microscopy until N.A. 1.4 Oil as well as for long working distance (LWD) optics, mainly combined with inverted biological microscopes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 May 1994
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 1846, Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications, (3 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.171868
Show Author Affiliations
Heinz Gundlach, Carl Zeiss (Germany)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1846:
Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications
Maksymilian Pluta; Mariusz Szyjer, Editor(s)

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