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Proceedings Paper

Proximity-compensated kinoforms directly written by e-beam lithography
Author(s): M. Larsson; Mats Ekberg; Fredrik K. Nikolajeff; Sverker Hard; Paul D. Maker; Richard E. Muller
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Paper Abstract

Proximity-compensated kinoforms were manufactured with direct-writing electron-beam lithography in two different resists, SAL 110 and PMMA. The kinoforms were blazed transmission gratings, with periods 4, 8, 16 pm 1 mm by 1 mm size, and a Fresnel lens, with 38 mm focal length and 3 mm by 3 mm size. The compensated gratings performed better than the uncompensated ones: for the 4 pm compensated grating the measured diffraction efficiency was 67%. It was 35% for the uncompensated grating. The Fresnel lens had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85% efficiency. The compensation was made by repeated convolutions in the spatial domain or deconvolution in the Fourier domain using the electron-beam point-spread function.

We also present developing processes for PMMA and SAL 110 resists that are more appropriate for multilevel resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-write electron-beam lithography.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 December 1993
PDF: 24 pages
Proc. SPIE 10271, Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics: A Critical Review, 1027109 (28 December 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.170197
Show Author Affiliations
M. Larsson, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
Mats Ekberg, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
Fredrik K. Nikolajeff, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
Sverker Hard, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
Paul D. Maker, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Richard E. Muller, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10271:
Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics: A Critical Review
Sing H. Lee, Editor(s)

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