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Proceedings Paper

Host-guest effects in the interaction of developers with phenolic resins
Author(s): Ralph R. Dammel; Mohammad A. Khadim
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Paper Abstract

NMR-spectroscopic evidence is presented for a strong interaction between polyphenolates and various onium ion species (i.e., tetramethylammonium, tetramethylphosphonium and trimethylsulfonium salts). In model compounds, a large decrease in solubility leading to precipitation is observed for a mixed Na/TMA+ complex. The formation of onium/phenolate complexes explains such diverse phenomena as the mutual poisoning of metal-ion free and metal ion containing developers, the behavior of developers containing quaternary ammonium surfactants, the anomalous temperature effects observed for tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) developers, or the dissolution inhibition effect of triarylsulfonium photoacid generators.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 September 1993
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 1925, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing X, (15 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.154754
Show Author Affiliations
Ralph R. Dammel, Hoechst Celanese Corp. (United States)
Mohammad A. Khadim, Hoechst Celanese Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1925:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing X
William D. Hinsberg, Editor(s)

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