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Proceedings Paper

Molecular contamination and the calibration of AXAF
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Paper Abstract

By the end of this decade, the two missions comprising the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will become the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories. In order to meet some of the ambitious scientific objectives, the AXAF team plans to calibrate the telescopes and instruments to an accuracy of a few percent. Particulate and molecular contamination potentially limit this precision, because they would likely change between ground calibration and orbital operation. To avoid this requires careful control over procedures affecting the coated optical surfaces, to ensure that neither particulate nor molecular contamination compromise the calibration. In particular, the fractional areal coverage by particulates or condensed droplets must be less than 0.005 projected onto the aperture plane; the thickness of any molecular film must be less than a few tens of angstrom.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 January 1993
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 1742, Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography, (21 January 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.140553
Show Author Affiliations
Ronald F. Elsner, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Stephen L. O'Dell, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Martin C. Weisskopf, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1742:
Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography
Richard B. Hoover; Arthur B. C. Walker, Editor(s)

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