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Proceedings Paper

Multivariate data spaces and multivariable systems analysis for explosives detection systems using x rays
Author(s): Alphonsus John Fennelly; James K. Woosley; David M. McMahon; S. Bhuminder; J. W. Wolfsberger
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Paper Abstract

The problems of maximizing probability of detection (PD) while minimizing the probability of false alarms (PF) in the explosives device detection problem for aviation security is addressed for x-ray explosive detection systems (XREDS). Difficulties with currently available detection systems are reviewed. The basic problem lies in the use of single-hit, single-phenomenology sensor systems, where to keep PF below 10-4, the equipment threshold VT for a detection system must be so low that, at the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) expected, we find that PD lies between 0.4 and 0.6 regardless of phenomenology or sensor. We examine the choices of signature and discriminant features for XREDS, to achieve high discrimination with few leakers (high PD) and little asset damage (low PF). That applies to low signal-to-clutter (S/C) and signal-to-jamming (S/J) ratios. We discuss choices and combinations of x-ray energies, spectral purity, direction of scattering, imaging techniques, and others. Cluster analysis, factor analysis, and principal component analysis are applied to provide effective discrimination between explosive devices and false alarm objects, thereby enhancing PD while keeping PF <EQ 10-4. A key analysis is the incorporation of binary cumulative probability of detection to combine the data from several sensors or signatures and avoid a cumulative increase in PF (which is caused by a single direct cumulative PD). We finish with some explicit examples and suggestions for further research into these x-ray methods.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 February 1993
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 1736, X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, (3 February 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.140480
Show Author Affiliations
Alphonsus John Fennelly, Teledyne Brown Engineering (United States)
James K. Woosley, Teledyne Brown Engineering (United States)
David M. McMahon, Teledyne Brown Engineering (United States)
S. Bhuminder, Teledyne Brown Engineering (United States)
J. W. Wolfsberger, Teledyne Brown Engineering (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1736:
X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications
Richard B. Hoover, Editor(s)

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